This review of literature presents the qualities of the leaders which is helpful in achieving the organizational goals and target in long run. Harvard business school research is also uses in this literature for getting the best solution. It presents that the leadership competencies is much needed to achieve the long term goals and also it is much necessary to run the organization more effectively and efficiently. It shows critics, contrast and synthesize also by the academic research through the Harvard business school. This present the importance of the leadership in the corporate organization for achieving the more success in long run.
(a) Prediction of Key Competencies About the Leaders of 21st Century
According to Frenk.j (2016) key competencies of leaders denotes that the efficiency and effectiveness of the leader towards the work of the organization and make it more profitable by satisfying the needs and wants of the customers. Leadership competencies is whole about the skills, development leaders and attitude toward the work. There are various key competencies of the leader towards the work for getting the success of the organization in long run, such as leader must be more socially intelligence (DePaul, 2015). This refers that the leader must be good in understanding of the social situation and have an ability to operate effective work in the long run by aware of the knowledge of the social issues. Another competencies of the leader is about their interpersonal skill. Interpersonal skills of leader denotes that the leader must be good maintain relationship with the peoples so that the name and fame of the organization will be maintain. This skill refers that the leader must be active listener and also had good communication skills for making the effective group in the organization. As per the Conte JM (2011) leader must have emotion or intelligence skills so that it can understand the emotions of people as well as their employees so that the relation between them is to be maintain. Due to this the leader can speak more effectively and influence the other so that the decorum of the organization is to be maintain and the organization meet the need of the peoples (Goulding, 2016). Next skill of leader is fortitude which means the leader must have ability to calculate the risk factors and also do the right thing in the organization so the organization will achieve more amount of profit regularly. Another skill of the effective leader is to manage conflict issues in the organization properly. Conflict issues is the higher order interpersonal skill which help to colleagues to resolve and avoid the conflict issues. An effective leader must have ability to understand the strategies to helping the parties for resolving the conflict (national Research Council, 2013). This skill of leader help to the organization to make compromises between the parties but it is necessary that the parties must be flexible and have a passion about to give up something to the organization. Leader must have an effective decision making skills so that it can take the good decisions for the organization to maximize their profit and opted better projects for the organization. In every kind of business the decision making skill has vast role in achieving the success in long run, due to this every organization appointed the leaders who's have these skill so that the organization gets proper decisions (Dicker and Piepmeier, eds., 2016).
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Political skill is one of the another skills which must be in the effective leader. Political skill refers that the leader must have good communicating power to influence to the other. Every group or the organization suffers from these issues many time in their working so the effect of it directly goes to the effectivity of the organizational work. Due to this they did not satisfy the needs and wants of the client of the organization so that organization suffers huge amount of loss and can not run their entity in the long run with more effectively (Mensah and Amponsah, 2016). Political skills is developed through experiences and learning of the peoples and also through the socially dynamic working. Another thing which must be needed in the leader is influence skill. It means the leader must have ability to influence the other about the work of the organization so that the organization achieve good stakeholders to run their business in long run and also due to this leader influence the employees about the work more reliably so that the employees of the organization does the things more effectively and efficiently and the benefit of it is directly goes in the account of the organization. Last skill which must be needed in the leader is area expertise or competencies which help to the organization to achieve their desired goals and objective for key success in the long run.
There are various similarities and differentiation between the traditional leaders capabilities and modern leader capabilities. According per the view of John Wiley & sons (2016) there are similarities in the behavior of the leaders of the peoples in the organization so that the organization achieve more interaction between the employer employees and the environment of the organization becomes more friendly and this gives the effect on the customers satisfactory in long run (Cook, Ault and Smerdon, 2015). The major similarities between these two is the leader must take identifiable action for the organization so that the organization earn good solution for their problems. This type of skill is available in both the category of the leaders' capability. An effective decision must required in the organization so it is common in both traditional and modern approaches of the organizations.
The Frenk J (2016) says that there is also various type of differences available in the traditional and modern skills of leaders. As per the traditional competencies of leaders, they do not have good experiences and training before working in the organization and also as compare to the 21st century leadership they do not have more crucial techniques to increases the efficiency and determine the effectivity in the long run. This is one of the major difference between these competencies of leadership (Copeland Sr and Gray, 2017). In 21st century leader have more power for taking the decisions in long run and also they do not have to any issues regarding the money and resources etc. so that they can take quick decision for getting the success of the organization in the long run.
(b) Causes of Changes to Leadership Competencies
According to the Conte JM (2011) causes of change in leadership competencies refers that the problems or issues which is face by the organization due to the change in the policies of the leadership competencies (Beetham and Sharpe, 2013). Thus, the organization suffers from various issues like lack of efficient work, resignation, quality etc. in their working environment. There are various types of the causes which is face by the organization due to the change of leadership competencies such as, mission advancement, collaboration, operational effectiveness and personal growth etc. The mission advancement denotes that increases the advancement about the values, community, volunteerism and philanthropy. This provides that the due to these issues the organization does not meet the success and in their environment raise this kind of issues. Value denotes that respect of the leaders or organization by the employees and the community defines that the changes is not easily acceptable by the employees or the peoples of the organization. Another aspects of causes due to change in the leadership competencies is collaboration which means the bonding or relationship among the employees or towards the organization positively because changes is not easily acceptable by the peoples so that they do not maintain the good relationship with leaders and organization (Han, 2014). Direct impact of these issues on the profitability or productivity of the organization. Due to the collaboration issues the organization faces the challenges in their environment is proper relationships, influencing power, inclusion, communication gap and developing others etc. The communication gap refers that information does not reach to every one due to these issues so that the organization suffers (Cogan and Derricott, 2014). The major cause in the leadership of the collaboration is does not the development other. It refers that due to causes of these various issues is to be created so that the communication gap is raising so that the organization environment is going to become more poor, due to these they do not help to others and the development of others is going to be stopped. Influence power of the leaders going to be reduced from occurring of these types of conflicts. This provides major loss to the organization and provides negative impact to them.
Another important cause of the changes in the leaderships due to changes in the leadership competencies is the operational effectiveness. The operational effectiveness denotes that impact of these cause on the effectiveness of the operational work of the organization. The operational effectiveness occurs through the issues of decision making, innovation, project management finance and due to the quality results (O'Connell, 2014). The decision making issues refers that due to cause of changes in the leadership competencies the leaders or manager does not take proper decision for the project work or any other work so that the organization does not achieve more amount of profits in the long run. The John Wiley & sons (2016) says that the decision making skill is one of the most wanted skill which is required by organization from the leaders, without these skills the organization does not work with more effectivity and efficiency and also organization does not satisfy the wants and needs of their customers. Innovation is also majorly effected due to the causes of the leadership competencies (Dimmock, Kwek, and Toh, 2013). Innovation refers that changes in the working environment for getting better positive results and increases the satisfactory level of the organizational clients. Innovation is much needed by every organization to meet the cultural changes and meet with the client needs but do to these cause organization does not innovate anything because the communication gap between the employees from the leaders and ultimately the whole organization suffers from it. The major causes which affecting the organization is to generate the finance from the stakeholders. Due to these issues the name and fame of the organization going to be reduced so that the organization faces the problem of generating the finance. If the work is not properly done than the client of the organizations is not happy so that the organization suffers losses and due to this no one want to invest their money in the organization. As from these causes the quality of the work is very low so that the organization suffers heavy amount of money and also they did not get the maximum level of satisfaction. The Harvard business school states that the every people in this corporate world want to achieve maximum satisfaction from the services which they receive from the organizations. This is due to the fact that organization will not provide proper work to their client and continuously suffers the trust of the client. The major impact of these cause in the organization toward the break of the customers satisfactions. The issues of project management refers that the leaders does not maintain the proper management towards their projects because they did not get the proper response from the client and employees from these issues.
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Another issues or problems due to the change the leadership competencies is personal growth. It states that due to these issues the self development of the people is going to be reduced because they did not take initiative towards the work and can not do work like their own work. This is one of the major problems occurs regarding this kind of issues. Another thing which is reflected is the capacity change, it denotes that due to these issues the capacities of the leader is to be change so that the organization suffers from their inefficiencies towards the work. Next aspect is emotional maturity which is much necessary in the leaders but it is also going to be reduced due to this reason. This aspect provides that the leader take decision after seeing the emotional intelligence but they do not take proper decision due to the lack of this problem and the last is functional expertise, it denotes that the leader must be expertise in the functional activities so that it can help to its subordinates and make a moral thing in front of them. The functional expertise means that the leader must have all the information towards the work and also it knows how to do work but from the causes of changes in the leaders competencies it is going to be reduced and whole organization bear the loss of it.
These all the causes happen due to change in the leadership competencies because the organization wants to do the entire work more efficiently and effectively in the very fewer amount of time (Shoemaker and Reese, 2013). In the desire of achieving this organization change the policies regularly. Due to these people needs time for adjust so in that time period organization suffers from issues and problems.
(c) Contrast, Synthesize and Critics of the Academic Research
According to the Landy (2010) contrast of 21st century leadership is evaluation of the leadership differences from the traditional and modern techniques. At present leadership has major role in success of every business organization because the organization need to the person who takes initiative and also takes the major decision for the enterprises. This technique of leadership is to be more useful for getting the more success by the organization in long run. This technique provides that the organization achieve their task with more effective and efficient way and satisfy the needs of the customers. This technique of leadership is uses by every organization for getting the success in the long run.
Synthesize of the leadership refers that to do work more effectively and carefully so that the organization earn more amount of money and also they achieve major task and goals for getting the higher success in long run. Moreover, by following these rules and policies organization run their entity more profitably and productively (Landy and Conte, 2016). This is one of the major advantage of the organization of these techniques. Organization achieves the satisfaction level of the employees by satisfy their wants and need through applying these techniques. Organization gets major outcomes and benefits by this kind of working in long run. The organization produces quality output with less time so that organization achieve better feedback from the employees by applying these tools and techniques in long run.
According to the Landy (2010) academics research of the leadership competencies are the research through which identify the various issues and problems regarding the leadership techniques which is suffers by the organization. According to the Harvard business school research it states that the organization will achieve more amount of profit through applying these various types of possible techniques. The leadership plays major role in getting the success of the organization is to be evaluate from this research. It states that the organization will achieve more productivity and more fame in the corporate world through applying these kind policies so that they will earn benefit by running the entities. This research states the benefit as well as problems regarding the leadership competencies. Benefit is happened only when the organization run their business by applying single leadership competencies so that they will do their work will more effectivity and efficiency. Another is issues which is occurs when the change in the policies and procedure of applying the leadership competencies in the organization (Castells, 2014). At present scenario every organization needs leaders to make decisions, plan strategies and also prepares the possible solution in their own ways. Due to all these positive aspects' organization will definitely achieve its goals and objectives and make their concern more profitable in the long run.
It is to be concluded that review of this literature states leadership is most necessary part of the organization to meet the need of its requirement in long run. This reports presents that every organization must need an effective leader for getting the success in long run. Harvard business school research that to meet the need of the society, a skillful leader must requires by the organization. This review of literature presents the outcome or critics of the 21st century leadership through its changes. It describes also the issues and benefits of the working in the leadership of the organization so that they did not go down, always takes more achieve in the long run. The organization acquires the more amount of benefits through applying these techniques in their entities so that they run their business in long run. The satisfaction level of the client is also increases due to applying the leadership competencies in the organization.
- Castells, M., 2014. Technopoles of the world: The making of 21st century industrial complexes.
- Landy, F. J. and Conte, J. M., 2016. Work in the 21st Century, Binder Ready Version: An Introduction to Industrial and Organizational Psychology.
- Shoemaker, P. J. and Reese, S. D., 2013. Mediating the message in the 21st century: A media sociology perspective.
- Han, H., 2014. How organizations develop activists: Civic associations and leadership in the 21st century. Oxford University Press, USA.