Barriers to Oral Health Care Management

Oral Health Management within General Dental Practice

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INTRODUCTION

Mouth and body are considered to be the integral part of each other, hence, it is very essential to maintain general and oral health at every stage of life. A healthy mouth is not only necessary to provide nutrition to the physical body but is also increases social interaction and self-esteem within individuals. A mouth serves as a key part of the body that provides signals when a general health disorders occur. For example the appearance of lesions in mouth indicate that there are signs of HIV infections in a person. Similarly, aphthous ulcers are indication of Coeliac or Crohn's disease. Oral adverse conditions not only produces impact on oral hygiene but it also produces a negative impact on overall health of a person. Bacteria which are produced in mouth due to unhealthy food and diet not only affects mouth but they are likely to cause infections in other parts of the body.

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The dissertation proposal will include aims and objectives that will help in conducting secondary research for the dissertation writing. Further, it will also discuss research methodology that is a very important tool of various research studies. A time scale with a Gantt chart will also be added at the end of the studies.

RATIONALE

Maintaining oral hygiene is very important because mouth is the integral part of a human body. If, it is not maintained then it can lead to many severe issues which can produce a negative impact on whole body. This has become a major issue nowadays because majority of people are not aware about oral hygiene and dental care which has increased the cases of mouth diseases to a higher extent. Previously many studies on oral hygiene and general health has been conducted but not articles or research papers were able to resolve major issues associated with oral hygiene and dental care. Hence, in order to create more awareness about the dental care this study will be undertaken. This will certainly help in improving the oral health conditions of all the individuals.

Aims and Objectives

Aim

“To critically analyse different types of barriers encountered in oral health management within General Dental Practice”

Objectives

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Secondary Research

As, this dissertation is based on secondary research it will make use secondary research methodologies so that studies is conducted effectively (Creswell, 2013). Secondary research is usually conducted by reviewing various research papers which are relevant to the studies which have been performed on the same topic. This includes randomised controlled trials, cohort studies, case control and previously conducted systematic review.

Research philosophy

There are two types of research philosophies that are generally used by researcher. Interpretivism and Positivism are the two commonly used research philosophies. The researcher will use interpretivism research philosophy because it will help in providing more accurate and rigid outcomes of the studies.

Research approach

This is also a part of research methodology that will help in meeting the aim and objectives of the study. Here also, there are two commonly used research approaches such as Inductive and deductive approach. Inductive approach is used when the author performs the studies from specific to general context whereas, deductive is used to conduct studies from general to specific context. Researcher will use deductive approach because it will help in getting more precise results.

Research type

This depends on the type of research an author will be conducting the dissertation. This is helpful in selecting the methods and designs so that research is conducted effectively (Daniel and Sam, 2011). The aim of the research is to critically analyse the different types of barriers encountered in oral health management within General Dental Practice. Based on the topic the investigator will choose qualitative research type. Quantitative research type is inappropriate for this study because it is not possible to quantify the current study.

Research design

Generally there are three types of research design which can be used by investigator in conducting any research. Correlational, descriptive and exploratory studies. Descriptive and correlational studies are generally taken into account to determine valid factors related to the aim and objectives of the study . Whereas, exploratory is used to helps in developing various outcomes of the studies. Exploratory research design will be used in the current study because this will assist in providing new and effective results so that oral health can be improved.

Data collection

Data collection will be done through selecting different articles which will help in meeting the aim and objectives of the study. Articles will be selected on the basis of inclusion and exclusion criteria which is one of the most effective methods to select relevant articles. Further, the articles will also be selected on the basis of search key terms so that all irrelevant articles are excluded from the studies.

Data Analysis

Data analysis is the method which helps in analysing the data that is collected through various sources. As the study is based on secondary research, the author will use thematic data analysis method where the analysis will be segmented on the basis of themes present in systematic review

Ethical considerations

While conducting any research it is very necessary to take into account ethical consideration of the studies so that ethical issues do not arise. As this dissertation proposal is related to secondary research, it is very necessary to consider ethical considerations related to literature review (McMillan and Schumacher, 2014). Proper rephrasing of all the content taken from research papers should be done so that chances of plagiarism are avoided. If, it is not rephrased properly then plagiarism may occur. Further, proper referencing and citation for all the sentences should be done so that all the sentences are justified.

LITERATURE REVIEW

Dental care utilization among children and adults have been consistently increasing after 2003. This has increased due to benefits provided by government and private dental clinics but there are numerous barriers that have been resulted in oral health management in general dental practice. Literature review has been conducted by reviewing various research papers. This has been discussed below.

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Theme 1 : Barriers to oral health care

Financial barriers is one of the major problem that has been associated with oral health management in general dental practice. According to the report it has been stated that one out of every five individuals is not able to access oral health facilities due to financial barriers. Based on the reports it was also reported that financial barriers in dental sectors are relatively high as compared to any other sectors in healthcare. According to DiMarco and et.al, 2016 it can be stated that apart from financial barrier poor oral health is also a result of lack of knowledge and awareness about dental care. This is generally noticed in rural areas and communities were people are less educated as compared to urban citizens. Further, Esa and et.al, 2014 has also stated that geographic distribution is also considered as one of the major barriers because people who are located in isolated areas are not able to access oral health facilities. According to dental health reports it was reported that number of professionally active dentist considerably decreased per 100,000 population which also created a barrier in accessing oral health facilities in different areas. Insufficient levels or lack of dental health insurance is also a serious problem that do not allow individuals to access oral health care facilities. Tonetti and et.al, 2015 has stated that lack of transportation in remote and isolated areas also develops a barrier which leads to poor oral health. Apart from financial barriers there are many barriers which prevents individuals from accessing oral healthcare facilities and general care. Work culture, lack of communication and demographic locations are also some factors. According to various studies it can be noticed that many individuals from different communities and culture face issues in communicating their problems to the physicians. This is only in the case of oral health but it can also be seen frequently in general healthcare management system. Norwood and et.al, 2013 have stated that lack of proper communication has increased the problem to a higher extent. Hence, it is very necessary for local, national and other health agencies to resolve this issues so that all the people are able to communicate their issues effectively. This will not only help in providing them better care but it will also help in speedy recovery of all the patients.

Theme 2: Impact of barriers on patients

Avoiding dental care or oral health hygiene due to various barriers in general dental practice results in negative impacts on the life of patients Friedman, Kaufman and Karpas, 2014. It is very important to mitigate these impacts so that people are able to maintain good oral health. If a person is not able to access dental care facilities then it will automatically lead to oral health problems such as bleeding gums, bad breath, improper oral hygiene and mouth lesions. These problems which occur in mouth due to poor oral health not only affects oral hygiene but this is directly connected with body as mouth and body are integral to each other. Increase in mouth lesions and cuts indicates that the patient is at high risk of developing HIV infections. Hence, it is very necessary to provide healthcare facilities accordingly. Further, excessive bleeding from gums is the sign that gums have been destroyed and can result in bad breath. Hence, it is very necessary to address various issues of oral health so that negative impacts due to these barriers are eliminated.

CONCLUSION

The dissertation proposal described various sections starting from introduction of the topic Barriers to oral health care management within General Dental Practice. Appropriate research methodology has been used in the proposal so that secondary research is conducted successfully. Further secondary research was based on reviewing all the relevant articles and research papers based on the formulated aims and objectives. Only those articles were selected which were relevant to the studies. Further a Gantt chart was also submitted that so that time period for overall research can be determined in the dissertation proposal.

REFERENCES

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