INTRODUCTION CROSS CULTRAL LEADERSHIP
Cross-cultural leadership is way to understand leaders who work in global market. Organizations are looking for leaders that can adjust to different environments quickly and work with members or employees of other culture. This report I am making for board of directors of keepwell Plc to make them understand about cross culture leadership will help them to gain their competitive edge. Other than this, it will also help them in follow up their domestic success by expanding into international market. I will evaluate factors that are important at time of deciding to appoint local or to relocate manager. Secondly, i will identify the attributes of selected manger for new site or business expansion. Other than this, paper will also evaluate the cultural issues and identify leadership style that manager can adopt for success of business expansion. At last, i will also provide recommendations for improvement in organization operation.
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Attributes of manager
There are various characteristics that manager of new sites should have for successful running of units. An argument by Sabri is that manager of KeepWell Plc must have capability to understand emergence of market or changes in market. KeepWell Plc requires fresh solutions to face problems of health industry. In the support of Sabri, according to me manager must understand the future of industry and perception of customers or market (Sabri, 2007). He must be ready to lead change according to needs and requirements of market and world. Young age people are moving more towards health products to get fit and subsidiary products of gym for better health.
Secondly, manager must have innovation for better implement of change in organization. Manager has to think in new way to adjust change while carrying out new model of health and care industry. This also has been challenged that innovation is important element of success and helps in better understanding of role (Wisgickl, 2014). The innovation must be focused on customer needs for better experience of customer as well as organization. KeepWell manager of new sites have to bring some new ideas to attract more and more customers towards their nutrition products and become leader in market.
Other than this, manager also has to be good in communication for success of business or units. A positive outcome of good communication will lead to success of organization and improve relation between employees and manager. Manager must work as a leader and keep their employees up-to-date on latest organizational news and industry news (Derr, 2006). It will provide job satisfaction to employees and increase production of nutrition products. It might be argued that manager must make every effort to get employees information that they need to do their job quickly and efficiently. Always stay connected with employees and make sure about fulfilling needs of them.
A further criticism of Lingenfelter is that manager of KeepWell Plc also need motivation and feedback characteristic for success of organization. Manager must motivate employee to work hard and accomplish organizational goal (Lingenfelter, 2008). He can motivate employees through appraisals and by organizing party to create motivational environment in organization. In the support of author, I can say that manager also have to take feedback from employees by having conversation and meetings. It will help manager in understanding needs of employees and solve issue or problems by better decision making.Manager can also improve quality of all interaction mediums by using them as opening for updated, effective feedback (Moodian, 2008).
According to me, KeepWell Plc manager also needs emotional intelligence. It includes self-awareness, self-management, social awareness and relationship management. It is necessary for every successful organization that its manager must aware about social aspects related to business or industry. It will help in maintaining culture and environment of organization and move towards success. In the support of researcher, Moran has argued that manager also have to know about changes made in competition. This will help in making strong employment and marketing decisions (Moran, 2011).
Other than this, monitoring is also one of major characteristic that manger need for success of organization and increase in performance. It is necessary to have proper monitoring of market and changes in technology. It will create better environment within organization for future understanding. At last, Penley has challenged that manager must have strategic thinking and committed for continuous learning and improvement. In another explanation, being a researcher, I said that manager must think and apply decisions in strategic way for better measurement of activities (Penley, 2006). I have also argued that manager of KeepWell Plc must have continuous learning and improvement on basis of learning.
Cultural issues and leadership style
A better systematic study of cross-cultural leadership has spotted that, culture is shared knowledge, behavioral standard that help people to live in families, groups and communities. The problems and conflicts faced by organization regarding these cultural standards are known as cultural issues. There are number of cultural issues that can be faced by KeepWell Plc manager. Firstly, the most important issue is communication. Manager may face issue or problems related to communication due to difference in culture and language (Oliver, 2007). I can also say that language is very important element while communicating between people because it’s hard to speak in different language. Language is way of sharing thoughts and information to employees and other people, if manager is having problem in language then he will not able to share his views to employees and have problem in motivating them.
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Secondly, behavior difference is also one of major aspect of cultural issue. Buscemi has said that behavioral differences between employees of different culture will lead to misunderstanding and affect the performance of organization (Buscemi, 2014). In the support researcher has said every culture has some standard about consideration of appropriate behavior. For example in some cultures, looking in some one eye while talking is considered as rude but on other side, if people don’t look in eye while talking then it means person is not confident. It is necessary for manager to have knowledge about behavior differences. These behavior differences can be barriers to effective communication if they are not familiar.
Other than this, emotional display is also one of cultural issue that can affect effectiveness of every business (Richel, 2002). A negative outcome of emotional display can create misunderstanding between employees and manager of KeepWell Plc. As per systematic study I has identified that an appropriate display of emotion can also be differ from culture to culture or nation to nation. For example, in some countries showing anger, fear or frustration in workplace is considered as inappropriate and that can affect environment of organization. Bonnici has joined this conversation and said that people from these culture keep their emotions hidden and only discuss realistic aspects of situation. While on other hand, in some cultures employees and participants of discussion expect to reveal emotions (Bonnici, 2011). These types of differences in culture create misunderstanding and affect performance or culture. Another explanation might be that the cultural differences lead to cultural issues.
A better systematic study of leadership shows that leadership style is way of providing direction and implementing strategy or plan with objective of motivating employees for success of business. Leadership style can be used in any field whether it is business or politics. I has spotted that cultural issues also affect leadership and that lead to decline of organizational performance (Allio, 2013). There are several leadership styles but KeepWell Plc manager can adopt two basic leadership styles for better performance of organization. Firstly, manager can adopt cross-cultural leadership. It will help organization and manager in understanding different cultures while interacting with each other. It provides potential to manager to adjust in different environment to work with employees of other culture. A positive outcome of cross-cultural leadership is that it gives better understanding of cultural influences on leadership and organizational practices. It motivates manager to work according to importance of religion, language, cultural background and political system (Leatherman, 2008). Cross-cultural also helps in developing new theories of leadership and organizational process effectiveness.
Other than this, for betterment of organization and successful implementation of cross-cultural leadership manager can adopt participative leadership. According to me, participative leadership is style in which leader motivate subordinates to get involved in goal setting, problem solving, team building and decision making. But the last (final) decision is of leader or manger. Positive outcomes of participative leadership are increase in acceptance, morale, creativity and retention. I have also identified that participation leadership classified in representative and participatory. In the support Richel spotted that in representative participation group of employees involved in decision making and serve on workers council or board of directors (Richel, 2014). While on other side, in participatory management subordinates share a scale of joint decision making with the support of their supervisors.
The environment in UK,USA and Brazil is different due changes or differences in culture between countries. It has been identified there are some cultural dimensions in different countries like, uncertainty avoidance, power distance, institutional collectivism, gender egalitarianism, etc. firstly, uncertainty avoidance is related with way culture uses rules, structures, etc. power distance is all about creating levels between people based on power, authority, status, etc. other than this, institutional collectivism is all about encourage institute or organization with proper use of collective action. It helps in identify wider societal interest to achieve goals.
According to above study it has been concluded that cross-cultural leadership is important for every organization for successful expansion of business. A systematic study spotted the positive aspect of participative leadership. Participatory decision making has positively impact on job satisfaction, organizational commitment, behavior and culture, labor management relations and performance of company. I can say that participative leadership motivate staff for accept policies and decisions that are essential for growth of organization. It also increase morale of employees and make them feel personally liable for success of company. Leatherman has said that it will also increase creativity of employees by having proper interaction between each other and employees will come up with many innovative ideas for improvement of business.
There are number of advantages and disadvantages of appointing local manager to take over leadership of each new site that company is expanding in North America and South America. According to me the local manager helps company in better way to understand the culture of area and reduce cultural issues of organization. In the support of researcher, Alves has said that local manager will help in reducing labor cost by using his local links. It will also lead to creating a trust between local citizens (Alves, 2006). Another positive outcome of appointing local manager is it will increase acceptance of company by local community and maximize the number of options available in local environment. Implementations of this will effectively represents local considerations and control in decision making process. It has also been challenged by researcher that local manager appointment will lead to respect of KeepWell Plc as genuine participant in local economy and motivate employees to work hard.
On other hand, the local manager appointment also has some disadvantages. Firstly, it is hard for local manager to make difference in local demand and global priorities (Grisham, 2008). This may motivate manager to focus more only on local demand and he may ignore global priorities. An alternative explanation might be that local manager will also lead to delay of difficult local decisions until they are necessary. It will create more difficulty, increase cost and more painful than they would have been if correct decision taken earlier. Alves has also said that local manager appointment may create difficulty to recruit qualified personnel and he may prefer or support any other person for betterment of personal relations. Being a researcher, I am also agreed with Alves and said that it may lead to personal goal as main objective rather than organizational goals (Alves, 2006). At last, it may also reduce the amount of control exercised by headquarter of KeepWell Plc.
Relocate current manager
A further criticism of me is that relocation of current manager will also help KeepWell Plc in increase its performance and lead to successful expansion. In the support of me, Georgianna has argued that it will create cultural similarity in all units of organization whether it is local or global. It will also ensure the better transfer of business/management practices and improve performance of new business unit (Georgianna, 2007). Another, strength of relocation of current manager is that it will allow or permit closer control and help in coordination of international subsidiaries and units. I also identified that it will provide a multinational employee orientation through better experiences at parent company. Other than this, relocation of current manager to new units will also establish a group of internationally experienced executives within organization.
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While on other side, it has also spotted some disadvantages of relocation of current manger. Dong offers an explanation of that is it will create problems of adaptability to foreign environment and culture. It is hard for everyone to get settled in new circumstances and new culture (Dong, 2010). The practical implications of this will also increase the foreignness of subsidiary and affect culture of new expansion unit. This may also involve high transfer and salary cost that affect expense and costing of organization. Another negative outcome of relocate current manger is that it may increase personal and family problems. It will also lead to high failure rate and have great affect on local management morale and motivation of employees. This may lead to decrease in performance of organization. A better systematic study has also identified that it may be subject to local government restrictions because political factor plays a key role in expansion of any business and KeepWell Plc have to consider it at time of expansion.
As per above discussion, It is better for human resource director to appoint local manager for expansion of KeepWell Plc in North America and South America (Deng, 2009). It is more appropriate decision because local manager will able to provide low labor cost and he will have knowledge about local culture that will help organization in avoiding cultural issues. Another reason of appointing local manager is that it will create trust in local citizens and lead to acceptance of company by local community. It will also provide better option to organization for targeting and segmentation. I also identified that it will help in decision making process with considering cultural aspect of local area and improve performance of employees and organization. There will be no problem of adaptability to environment and culture. In other words, it will control and reduce cost by less salary cost and lead to increase in success rate of organization.
Recommendations and justification to Managing Director
In this being a researcher, i has identified that local manger is more appropriate for KeepWell Plc at its new units in North America and South America. This paper has also spotted some disadvantages of hiring local manager. Other than this, paper also spotted on attributes that are necessary to consider at time of appointing local manager. I had also discussed the cultural issues that can affect leadership of new manager and identified that participative leadership is one of leadership that can adopted by local manager. At last, being a researcher, I has also suggested some ways to improve leadership effective of manager.
There are several ways to improve performance and effectiveness of local manager for success of business. Company can provide a training and development session for improvement of leadership skills. According to me, company can provide and effective feedback to facilitate and support performance and development. In the support of this argument, Boot has also said that if, there in better feedback process in organization it will help manager in better understanding of culture and organizational environment. It will affect positively organization and motivate local manager to understand needs of employees that are not from same area (Boot, 2012). Company can also acknowledge manager about employee contribution at both level (individual and macro-team level). According to me, if manager will have proper knowledge about performance and contribution of employees then he will be able to perform and understand the culture of organization. It will improve effectiveness of local manager that positively beneficial for organization.
KeepWell Plc can also make clarify manager about leadership vision and motivate to be committed in achieving organizational goal (Moran, 2011). It is important for local manager to have clear vision of leadership. In support of argument, Derr said that it can do by personal meeting and presentation. The clear vision of leadership is that manager must care about value of staff and clients. This will help local manager in achieving organizational goal. Derr also said that company can also motivate employees to work hard and get committed to achieve goal. Local manager of KeepWell Plc can also learn from mistakes by proper monitoring (Derr, 2006). Manager can have proper monitoring of every activity in organization and correct mistakes of employees. It will improve effectiveness and force employees to work properly that will help in achieving objectives.
At last, local manager effectiveness can also improve by making balanced, timely and effective decisions to keep the business moving forward. Positive outcome of this will be that it will motivate manager to have effective decision at proper time and not to delay decision for better performance.
According to me the proper justification of recommendation is that through this manager will able to focus on improvement in drawback of local manager. Through these recommendations local manager can have proper communication with employees and have an effective feedback for better performance (Allio, 2013). It will also make understand about value of employee contribution and behavior of employees from different culture. It will improve balancing between local demand and global priorities. This positive affect will be that it help manger in recruiting qualified personal by understanding person behavior.
- Allio, R., 2013. Leaders and leadership – many theories, but what advice is reliable?. Strategy & Leadership.
- Alves, J., 2006. A cross‐cultural perspective of self‐leadership. Journal of Managerial Psychology.
- Buscemi, F., 2014. From killing cows to culturing meat. British Food Journal.
- Deng, L., 2009. Mapping and modeling the capacities that underlie effective cross‐cultural leadership: An interpretive study with practical outcomes. Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal.
- Dong, K., 2010. Cross‐cultural management in China. Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal.