Food safety management is the scientific discipline that describes that how food can be saved from any kind of contamination. In present scenario, food safety is regarded as one of the most crucial issue (Food safety management, 2014). It is due to the presence of this aspect only various organizations are directing their efforts in terms of maintaining the safety of their produced goods in an effective manner. This report will provide detailed description regarding the causes that leads to the food borne illness among individual. It will also suggest the ways through which prevention of food can be carried out from any kind spoilage.
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A. Reviewing the Controls for Preventing the Food from Contamination
In order to prevent food from contamination various types of controls are reviewed. Contamination of food is basically spoilage of food that occurs due to the presence of microorganism like parasites and bacteria in food. The contamination is of two types such as physical and chemical contamination (Tournas, 2005). Physical contamination of food occurs when particles like glass fragment, plastic and store etc gets mixed into food. People, packaging material, unsatisfactory PEST control practices are regarded as the major source of physical contamination in food (Food contamination, 2014). Through people it occurs when, individual uses their dirty hands with respect to carrying the various types of activities such as handling, storing and eating food etc. However, control over the physical contamination can be carried out by following the hygienic practices while complying with the practice like handling and storing of food (Physical contamination, 2014). Moreover, by following cleaning and disinfection procedure prevention of food can be carried out from physical contamination. In addition to this, chemical contamination is another form of food contamination. This occurs when substances which are unhealthy mixed in the food and make it poisonous (Nesbitt and et.al., 2009). The chemical can be mixed into food through variety of practices such as using strong perfumes while storing food and placing food in old chemical containers etc. However, the food can be protected from such type of chemicals by taking these measures such as washing the hands with the soap that contain less percentage of chemical and using new container for the purpose of storing food.
If an effective measure with respect to the both type of contamination is not carried out by individual then its leads to cause diseases like food borne illness. In this respect, various measures identified with the help of which food-borne illness can be controlled. These are all explained as below:
Washing the hands regularly: It is the most popular method for controlling food-borne illness. While complying with the activity like handling, storing and preparing food, it is required by the individual that is to wash their hands in an effective manner. This is because if it is not done then it leads to the cause of many bacteria like Salmonella, Clostridia and Listeria etc.
Separate the food items: It is another approach with the help of which food can be prevented from both forms of contamination (Escanciano and Santos-Vijande, 2014). Separate shelf should be used for the storing of different types of food articles such as raw meat, vegetables, fruits and fish etc.
Maintaining the hygiene of kitchen: The negative effect of both type of contamination can be removed by maintaining the hygienic practices at kitchen. This is because in kitchen bacteria or microorganism transferred from one food to another if unhygienic knife or cutting board is used for different types of activities such as cutting of vegetables and raw meat etc.
B. Varied Sources of Food Contamination are Analyzed
Various sources assessed that plays crucial role in terms of contaminating the property of fresh food in an effective way. These sources are the basic agent that spoils food as well as affect the quality of food material in a negative manner. These agents are described as below:
Bacteria: It is the crucial agent that causes its significant effect on the property of food. In this respect, there are two types of bacteria identified such as type E and type B etc. Type B bacteria are the major cause of food poisoning. It is the reason why it is being considered as one of the most dangerous bacteria among all. This bacterium occurs in the food articles like meat and vegetable. In addition to this, Type E bacteria originated in the circumstances which is unhygienic (Tenenhaus‐Aziza, Daudin, Maffre and Sanaa, 2014).
Moulds: It is another stage of Bacteria. It developed when the conditions are not in the favor of both type of bacteria. It is also called by the name of fungus. The food articles like pickle and jellies are spoiled through these bacteria. On the other hand, consumption of such type of foods can cause diseases like food poisoning.
Yeast: Yeast is the small microorganism that feeds themselves from the carbon that is extracted from the sugar which is present in food. It is of two types such as true yeast and false yeast. True yeast is the good yeast that is used for the baking purpose. However, false yeast is the most dangerous yeast because its spoils the quality of food by forming dry thick layer over it. People that consume the food that is contaminated from this yeast get ill.
Enzymatic activity: It is considered as another agent that causes food spoilage. This activity comprises of two different types of fats such as unsaturated as well as saturated. These fats are mostly found out in the dairy products. Enzymatic activity in dairy product is created by virus called by the name of lipase. Here this virus breaks the property of food into free fatty acid (Yabanci and Sanlier, 2007). These whole processes are called by the name of hydrolytic rancidity. This causes significant effect on the natural flavor of milk in an effective way.
Difference is being found out between the characteristics of food poisoning and food borne infection etc. Food poisoning occurs due to the presence of following causes such as eating of unhygienic or contaminated food in market. This is because it is in these foods only the presence of microorganism like virus and bacteria are being found (Lee and Lee, 2014). Moreover, the property of food will get spoiled when these unwanted substances mixed into food and make is unhealthy for the human consumption in an effective manner. Major symptoms of food poisoning are vomiting, diarrhea and headache etc. On contrary to this, Food bone illness is regarded as the type of infection which spread among individual when they eats contaminated food. Chemical contamination of food is the major cause of food borne illness. However, food positing can be occurred from both types of contamination such as physical as well as chemical.
C. Discussing methods for food preservation
It is important for the individual that is to save food from contamination types of activity. This can be done by them by seeking assistance from different types of food preservation methods (Akkerman, Farahani and Grunow, 2010). With the help of these sources, quality of food articles can be maintained in an effective way. The sources of preserving food are enumerated as below:
Freezing: By complying with such type of activity unfavorable environment for the bacteria can be created. This is because, freezing of food helps in lowering down the process that develops the bacteria in the food in an effective manner. In addition to this, by preserving the food at the low temperature the consumption of same can be carried out by the person for the longer period of time.
Heating or high temperature: For preserving the food methods like blanching and boiling the food is used. This process is used for the food that is more acidic in nature. With the help of this activity, food can be protected from microorganism and bacteria. By preparing the food at the high temperature the pathogens present in food can be destroyed (Azu and Kim, 2006.).
Chemical preservation: It can be done with the help of material like salt and sugar. By using this protection of various types of food article can be carried out.
Drying: It is the most popular traditional methods of food preservation. With the help of this activity moisture can be removed from the food which is regarded as the major reason for the development of microorganism in food. This is done through ultraviolet rays of sun.
The effectiveness of all these methods is analyzed. With the help of activity like freezing and drying the environment which develops bacteria in food can be lower down. By heating the food, the protection of quality of food can be carried out (Hernandez, 2010).
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A. Methods for the safe storage of food along with emphasizes on temperature control system
Number of methods identified that leads to the safe storage of food. It includes following such as sealing, canning, freezing, curing and drying etc (Food Preservation Methods: Canning, Freezing, and Drying, 2014). In the activity like freezing foods are stored at around zero degrees Fahrenheit temperature in refrigerator. By complying with this type of activity protection of food can be carried out from various types of bacteria. In addition to this, canning is another safe method for food storage. It also called by the name of pasteurization where preservation of food is carried out in following way. Here firstly foods are heated at high temperature and after this process they are placed at the container which is tightly sealed. Botulism bacteria can be destroyed through it (Humphrey, O'Brien and Madsen, 2007). In addition to this, drying is another process with the help of which storage of food can be carried out in safe way. Here efforts are made by individual in terms of evaporating all sort of moisture from the food. This is done through placing food for the longer period of time in the light of sun. This is used for the food articles like vegetables, meat and seafood etc. Further with this, curing is the process which is similar to drying. But here instead of light of sun, salt is used for the purpose evaporating moisture from the food. In the method of sealing, food are placed at the container which is tightly sealed. Through this way protection of food can be carried out from the microorganism bacteria that affect the property of food and spoil it.
With an aim to protect food from spoilage, temperature control system plays very important role that comprises of series of steps (Montville and Matthews, 2005). With the help of this activity, the food articles can be used by individual for long period of time. For example, by refrigerating the food articles like meat and seafood etc in 41 degree Fahrenheit temperature or less the perseveration of the same can be carried out. In the similar way, the microorganism that is present in food can be destroyed if food is to be 135 degree Fahrenheit temperature. Overall, it can be said that by using temperature control system in the activity like storing, handling and preparing etc the protection of food can be carried out from spoilage.
B. Evaluating the importance of personal hygiene, cleaning, disinfection and pest control
The importance of personal hygiene, cleaning, disinfection and pest control are evaluated. In this regard, it can be concluded that the control over the activity like contamination of food can be carried out if personal hygiene is being maintained. Here in this activity before going for the practices like handling, storing and preparing food etc, hands are washed through soap or sanitizers (Doyle and Buchanan, 2013). It is important to maintain the personal hygiene because by complying with this type of activity spreading of microorganism bacteria can be carried out. This is usually occurs when dirty hands are used for purpose of storage and preparation of food. This can be maintained by following different types of practices in the regular routine. By wearing the cloth which are hygienic or properly cleaned, personal hygiene can be maintained. With the help of this activity protection of food can be carried out from any type of contamination.
Further with this, the process used for supporting safe food production such as cleaning and disinfection is evaluated. With the help of different chemicals this process can be carried out by an individual. On the other hand, through this way only, cleanliness of kitchen appliances which is used for the food production can be maintained. By complying with such type of practices, the activity that leads to food contamination can be weeded out. This is because if proper cleaning of kitchen material and utensils is not carried out then it leads to affect the quality of food material in a negative way (Botana, 2014 ). Moreover, this factor can be also be regarded as the major causes of food poisoning among individual also. In addition to this, for the purpose to protect food from spoilage the chemicals like hypochlorite and chlorine dioxide should be used. With the help of these chemicals, the process that develops bacteria in food can be slower down this leads to the safe production of food in an effective way.
Number of problem identified that occurs when pest control measures are taken at the food premises. Pest control is the type of practices where efforts are made by individual in terms of carrying the management of species that affect the health of individual. This practice should be avoided in the area where food is stored. It is because, this activity contains harmful chemical which is if mixed into food then it affect the quality of food in an effective manner and makes its poisonous for the human consumption (Metcalfe and et.al., 2013).
C. Justifying the needs of hygienic design of premises and training
Justification has been done with respect to the need of hygienic design of food premises. Hygienic design should be maintained at the premises where food is stored. In this is regard, there are various factors identified due to which the need relating to the maintaining the hygienic design at food premises is required to be occurred. It comprises of following such as food infection and contamination of food etc. The protection of food from getting spoilage and contaminated can be carried out, by hygienically designing the food premises in an effective way. In addition to this, the area where food is produced needs to be washed by individual on regular basis. This is being done by individual by making the proper design at kitchen as well as forming an effective selection of floor material. In this regard, marble floor must be used. This is because this floor can be cleaned on regular basis. By complying with all such type of activity food can be protected from contamination (Escanciano and Santos-Vijande, 2014).
It is important to provide food hygienic related training to an individual. This is because training helps in raising the knowledge of individual with respect to the different type of hygienic practices that can be used by them for the purpose to maintain the hygienic environment at the kitchen in an effective way. In addition to this, it is through this way only various types of ways can be identified by individual that enable them in terms of preserving he food for the longer period of time. It is with the help of training only, the control over the contamination of food can be carried out which is usually occurs when person possess lack of information as well as proper knowledge regarding the same. Overall, it can be said that with the help of training individuals can be informed about the negative effect of unhygienic practices being used by them for the purpose to store, handle and prepare food etc. In addition to this, by complying with such type of activity safety and security of the food can be maintained by the individual in an effective manner.
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D. the document is produced for the seafood restaurant which comprises of following such as food hazard risk assessment, a food safety control system and a food safety guide meeting legal requirements
For the seafood restaurant, an effective guidance document is prepared which enable them that are to deliver their effective services to the customers in an effective way. This guidance document will provide detailed description regarding following aspects such as food hazard risk assessment, a food safety control system and a food safety guide meeting legal requirements. These are all explained as below:
Food hazard risk assessment
Every organization has the responsibility that is to deliver their effective services to the customers. This can be only delivered by them if they follow safe practices with respect to their food in an effective way. In this regard, number of food hazards identified that is being associated with the seafood. These are all explained as below:
- Sea food contains the substances like bone chips and animal hair etc. If these substances are being consumed by the individual then it may leads to serious health injury.
- Raw meat or food which is of half cooked can be considered as another reason that may affect the health of individual in an effective way. This because raw meat contains various types of bacteria which is being regarded as the major cause of foodborne illness as well as food poisoning etc (Azu and Kim, 2006).
- The sea food must be cleaned before it is used for food preparation purpose. This is because food material like fish, squad and proms possess various types of bacteria which are if consumed leads to cause food-borne illness.
Food safety control system
The food safety control system can be used with an aim to protect individual from the negative effect of food hazard. With the help of this system, improvement in the sales and profitability related condition of restaurant can be carried out.
- By using the control system like Hazard analysis and critical control point safety of the food can be carried out from biological, chemical, and physical hazards (HAZARD ANALYSIS AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINT, 2014). With the help of this technique restaurant manager can identify various types of hazard that is associated with sea food. On assessing this, various measures with respect to same can be taken by them in an effective manner (Pitt and Hocking, 2009).
- The hazards related to the sea food can be reduced by maintaining the hygienic environment at the kitchen in an effective way. This is because it is through this way only food can be saved from both chemical and physical contamination in an effective way.
Food safety guide meeting legal requirements
For sea food restaurant, various types of food safety guidelines identified with the help of which safety of the food can be maintained at their restaurant. Moreover, it is through this way only improvement in the sales as well as profitability related condition of organization can be carried out by them in an effective way. The guidelines are enumerated as below:
- Food Safety Act 1990: UK government has proposed this act. This act explains that it is important for any kind of restaurant that is to comply with the practice like maintain quality standard in their hotel in an effective way. This is because if it is not done then strict legal action is required to be taken against the same.
- Food labeling regulations 1996: This act suggests that it is the responsibility of the enterprise that they must provide full information regarding the food which is being produced by them for their customers in an effective way.
Summing up all the facts and figures from the whole report it can be concluded that it is important for the individual that is to comply with the aspect like maintaining the safety of their food in an effective manner. This is because it is through this way only the protection of food can be carried out from both type of contamination such as chemical as well as physical. In addition to this, the reduction over the occurrence of food borne illness can be carried out if hygienic practices are being followed by the individual with respect to the storing, handling and preparing of food etc. Overall, it can be said that by seeking assistance from various food preservation methods protection of food article can be carried out.
Books and journals
- Akkerman, R., Farahani, P. and Grunow, M., 2010. Quality, safety and sustainability in food distribution: a review of quantitative operations management approaches and challenges. Or Spectrum.
- Azu, L. J. and Kim, J., 2006. Spectrum of noninfectious health effects from molds. Pediatrics.
- Botana, L. M., 2014. Seafood and Freshwater toxins: pharmacology, physiology, and detection. CRC Press.
- Doyle, M. P. and Buchanan, R. L., 2013. Food microbiology: fundamentals and frontiers (No. Ed. 4). ASM Press.
- Escanciano, C. and Santos-Vijande, M. L., 2014. Reasons and constraints to implementing an ISO 22000 food safety management system: Evidence from Spain. Food Control.