Organization behaviour (OB) can be stated as the study of individuals or group of people that are working together in teams. However, the study of OB relates to the expected behaviour of an individual in the firm. It is multidisciplinary field dedicated to assess individual and group behaviour (Robbins and et. al., 2013). In the current research, organization undertaken is Morison which is the fourth largest retail chain in UK. Further, the report covers effective leadership behaviour. It also assesses the impact of organizational structures and cultures on its effectiveness. At the end, it is significant to evaluate the way in which organization can enhance its effectiveness of workers with respect to gain business opportunities.
1.1 Evaluation of leadership theories
It can be assessed that leadership is the process in which a leader or manager directs actions to their followers so that appropriate action can be attained. It is significant for leaders to possess certain skills in order to effectively tackle with issues and problems with an aim to achieve organizational goals (Wong, Mahmud and Omar, 2015). Following are the varied types of leadership theories that need to be undertaken by the leaders within Morison to encourage employees and to attain goals. These are as follows-
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Trait Theory- Such theory states that individual are either born or not born with the skills or qualities that help them to attain success. However, there are certain inherent qualities such as personality and skills that helps people to become an effectual leader. It is a crucial theory that helps leaders of Morison to assess their qualities and thus, to motivate the workforce to achieve results (Schyns and et. al., 2011). It can be evaluated that trait theory is a best approach to study human personality. However, it helps in measuring the habitual patterns of behaviour, thought and emotion. The pros and cons of trait theory are as follows-
- It can be stated that leadership depends upon having certain traits which allows behaviour modification in order to become more tenable in developing good leaders.
- It helps in analysing that what traits generally makes a successful leader in order to identify the potential of individuals.
- However, the specific traits are required to develop effectual qualifications so that leaders can be encouraged.
- It can be stated that individual may get discouraged and also give up while performing as a leader because when he/she refers to the list of leadership roles and does not possess any of such qualities.
Contingency Theory- This theory evaluates that leader's effectiveness is contingent on the extent to which their leadership style matches with a particular situation. However, in such type of leadership theory, it is essential for leaders to assess the situations and thus change their skills and abilities with the aim to attain set targets (Wery and Thomson, 2013). It can be evaluated that contingency model helps in determining that in which direction leadership taken within contingency theory. Therefore, in such model leadership style is described in regard of task and relationship motivation as well.
- It helps in ensuring that project has access to the people who are tailored in order to complete the project as per the money.
- However, it is flexible means it can be easily applied within small and large firms.
- It is a quick method that can be adopted by businesses in order to identify the best potential leaders.
- It states the contingency theory suffers from inadequate literature. Thus, it undertakes varied actions under varied situations.
- It is a complex approach when put into practice and thus involves many variables with varied dimensions.
1.2 Impact of managerial styles on organizational effectiveness
It can be evaluated that the managerial styles adopted by leaders have effectual impact on the business effectiveness. Such styles are as follows-
Autocratic Management Style- In such style an autocratic manager makes decisions on his own without consulting other employees. However, this management style leads to completing the work done on time as it involves minimum individual in the decision making process (Miner, 2015). Thus, autocratic style impacts on business effectiveness in the form of inculcating less number of employees at the time of decision making and thus motivation among them decreases. This leadership style leads to enhance the level of employee dissatisfaction as they are not allowed to participate in decision making process. This also put negative impact on company's growth through enhancing the number of employee turnover. Thus, it can be evaluated that autocratic leadership style assists leaders to make decisions on their own. Thus, it helps in forming best decisions as it involves minimum number of people.
Democratic Management Style- In democratic management style it assists manager to share work with their employees and also involve them in decision making with the aim to fulfil the task. It impacts on Morrison’s effectualness that each and every individual participates in the decision making process and thus encourages to work efficiently for the firm in order to attain targets (Fletcher and Fitness, 2014). With the help of this style management of company will be able to enhance the level of employee motivation at workplace along with they can also reduce the ratio of employee attrition rate.
Laissez-faire Management Style- Here, individual is given freedom to accomplish the job or duty as per their way. However, it is a good way to assists individual contribution to team efforts and thus, positively impacts the business proficiency to attain goals in long run (Healy, 2014). On the other side, it can also put its negative impact on the productivity of employees as they have full freedom to perform their duties as their own.
1.3 The way in which motivational theory can inform employee motivation
Motivation is one of the main factors in attaining success and also it is the ability to encourage the workers to attain the directed goals. Further, a number of motivational theories have been developed in order to have employee motivation. These are as follows-
Hierarchy of Needs- In such theory, it places human needs into five different categories that is ranging from basic needs such as food, clothing and shelter to the self-actualisation need. Management of Morrison adopts Maslow hierarchy needs in order to assess the current requirement of every worker and to evaluate that what will encourage them to attain desired goals. Thus, business is required to provide such career advancement objectives to employees so that they can be highly encouraged (Theories of motivation. 2014).
Motivation-Hygiene Theory- It is also known as ‘Herzberg two factor theory’. However, it evaluates that the workplace environment results in either satisfaction or dissatisfaction among workers. Managers of Morrison need to analyze the factors such as satisfaction that involves achievement, recognition and advancement while dissatisfaction includes work conditions, salary etc. Thus, assessing such factor helps in informing the worker’s encouragement towards desired targets (Hayes, 2014).
1.4 Analysis of theories relating to work relationships and interaction
Workplace relationships can be stated as the most crucial implications for individuals to build a positive psychology and behaviour with an aim to achieve organizational goals. However, developing positive interrelationship in the environment of workplace helps in enhancing potential to execute the tasks effectively. There are varied work relationships and interaction theories that are developed in order to build positive ambience at the workplace and to achieve results. These are as follows-
Social Exchange Theory- As per this theory “give and take” forms the basis of every relationship but their involvement might vary from each other. However, in such type of theory, every individual who is working within firm has certain expectations from their colleagues with an aim of building mutual connection to execute the tasks effectively. Such theory helps workers of Morison to develop a strong bond of trust and relationship through working together and achieve success (Behavioral theory. 2014).
Uncertainty Reductions Theory- Here, in this theory, it states that at the time when two unknown individuals are meeting for the first time, they go through varied stages to reduce the level of uncertainty among them and they work effectively together. However, in organization, individuals come from different cultures and thus, they need to communicate so that strong team can be formed with the aim to satisfy the customers’ needs. Thus, with the help of such theory management of Morrison’s develop workplace relationship and interaction among individual (Mohr, Young and Burgess Jr, 2012).
2.1 The way in which business can facilitate innovation and creativity
It can be evaluated that sharing ideas and knowledge helps in the growth and advancement of business. Thus, it is crucial for employees of Morrison to share ideas and thoughts with each other with an aim to aid innovation and creativity within work culture. However, it can be assessed that innovation is the spark that facilitates business to achieve success. Therefore, business should focus upon their research and development department in order to execute new findings so that desired outcomes can be attained (Foss, Woll and Moilanen, 2013). While, creativity can be defined as nothing more than working beyond the current boundaries in the form of adopting innovative and unique technology, knowledge etc.
Moreover, Morrison can facilitate innovation and creativity within firm through involving skilled and talented people. Also, providing them varied intrinsic rewards helps in bringing change and innovation so that culture can be developed efficiently. Further, in order to imbibe innovative and creative culture within workplace, business can enhance internal communication so that employees would interact with each other and generate new ideas of improving sales and profitability (Knight, 2012). Also, enhancing working conditions such as building stress free environment helps employees to facilitate business towards innovation and creativity as compared to other rivals at the marketplace. Thus, Morrison can facilitate innovation and creativity through involving skilled workers and developing creative ideas to attain the organizational goals.
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2.2 Assessment of importance of learning in organizations
It can be evaluated that there is huge significance of learning within firm. It assists the workers to develop their knowledge regarding customer's perceptions so that requirements can be satisfied effectively. Workforce of Morrison has to learn the varied ways through which client’s satisfaction can be attained. Additionally, employees should also learn about dealing with different situations that happens within workplace such as unavailability of required raw material and also running smooth flow of production in business (Davies and Brown, 2014). For instance, if all such things are learned by the employees of Morrison in an effectual manner then in this situation, they will be able to direct their efforts by delivering their best performance in the firm.
Thus, all such learning helps individuals to direct their efforts with regard to attract a wide range of clients and satisfying their needs and wants. It helps in improving the sales and profitability of Morrison. Also, in order to develop learning among workforce, management should organize varied training and development programs. With the assistance of such programs, workers of Morrison can enhance their understanding regarding the ways of executing production (Robbins and et.al., 2013).
2.3 Effectiveness of team working
Effectiveness of team working can be stated as a crucial task that assists individuals to work in a team and thus, in achieving the desired objectives. Team working is effectual because through this, different solutions for one specific problem can be obtained by the management of firm. Thus, by adopting team working within Morrison, it helps in maximizing customer satisfaction and assists them to remain loyal with the firm and to gain the desired results. For instance, if any information is gained by the management of firm that customers specific needs and wants is not attained then manager is required to develop team efforts so that particular problem can be solved (Mohr, Young and Burgess Jr, 2012).
Thus, it can be stated that team working is an effectual approach for any enterprise. It is because due to the presence of this aspect, it can be stated that for any firm, the concept relating to team working plays a very critical role. Moreover, it is because with the help of such given aspect, only the work of Morrison can be executed effectively. It helps in gaining high sales and profitability (Scott and et. al., 2015). However, in team working, individual efforts are not acknowledged because of which motivation of many workers gets hindered. Thus, it directly impacts the sales and profitability of firm. Advantages and disadvantages of team working are discussed below-
- It leads to increase the productivity and performance of employees to a great extent.
- It assists employees to share their ideas, suggestions and advice with each other so that better solutions can be find to resolve any conflicts.
- In team working, all the team members are gathered at one place to take decision making that can lead to enhance the chance of intra-team conflict.
- However, team working also limits creative thinking among workers as they are dependent upon each other and thus lack innovation within workplace.
2.4 Effective management of change in business
It can be assessed that any type of change that happens within firm is usually resisted by many workers. Thus, because of such type of aspect, it is being needed by the manager of Morison to manage the required change within firm in an effectual way. For instance, Morrison is planning to carry out changes in their existing client satisfaction activity. Thus, they need to plan and introduce new technique through which clients can be attracted towards firm and attain satisfaction (Hayes, 2014). For bringing such change within firm, it may affect the motivation of workers as well as they may face resistance from most of its employees.
Thus, for change management, business can take help from Kurt Lewin’s change model. Such model comprises of three different types of phases such as unfreeze, transition and refreeze etc. In the unfreeze step, manager of Morrison has to direct their efforts in terms of communicating the significance of implementing stated change within firm. Thus, after this step, worker of business will readily accept the changes that happen within firm and as a result of it, they will move on to the transition phase (Howard and et. al., 2015). After transition phase, workers will be ready to refreeze themselves in context to the new policies and procedures. Thus, it can be assessed that through such approach, any type of change can be managed within firm.
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3.1 Analysis of culture and structure of Morrison and impact on its effectiveness
Morison adopts hierarchical organizational structure and person culture. However, the structure and culture as followed by the firm that create a huge impact on its business effectualness. With the assistance of hierarchical structure, proper relationship can be maintained among workers and employers (Fisher, Campbell and Svendsen, 2012). Adopting such type of structure clearly demonstrates the roles and responsibilities as executed by the workers during specific time period. Thus, it enhances the encouragement of employees which hindered when individuals are unaware about the work which they need to carry out within particular time. Further, person culture is another crucial aspect that helps in improving the effectiveness of business. However, in such type of culture, needs and wants of workers are given with more importance that helps in improving the motivation of workers which usually hinders when firm does not give much significance to the need of individual. Thus, it helps in improving sales and profitability of Morrison (Parmelli and et.al., 2011).
4.1 Different approaches to organizational decision making
There are two types of approaches that have been evaluated by the manager of Morrison could use while taking any type of decision within firm. It comprises of rational and personal approach. However, in rational decision making approach, manager follows step by step process with an aim to take any type of decision within business. Thus, at the time taking decision, manager sets situation goals and according to this, it identifies the problem. With regard to this problem, manager develops different types of alternative solution and evaluates the same. Further, for the process of evaluating, business carries out the selection of one specific alternative. Such approach is effective because through using it, an effective decision can be taken by the manager of firm (Noyes, Masakowski and Cook, 2012). However, such approach is not suitable when manager has to make quick decision because it involves lengthy process to reach conclusion stage.
Morrison complies with such type of decision when it will have to take the crucial decision regarding the type of products that are to be produced as per the requirement of clients in order to gain satisfaction. Additionally, by personal approach, the decision of manager is influenced by different personal characteristics such as type of education, position in business, experience etc. Further, such features vary from person to person. Here, there is no guarantee that the decision taken by the manager is effectual (Bhattacharya and et. al., 2014).
4.2 Management approaches to risk and uncertainty in decision making
It can be assessed that there is one effectual decision that has been made by the management regarding the situation of risk and uncertainty. It is the scenario planning management approach that helps in making effectual decision to risk and uncertainty conditions. It has been considered as one of the most effectual approaches with the assistance of which future plans of Morrison can be developed by the manager (Knight, 2012). However, it can be stated that the given approach is effective because it clearly specifies about the probable risk and uncertainty that the firm will tend to face while taking future decision. Through assessing the risk and uncertainty related condition, an effectual decision can be taken by the manager of Morrison and he can attain maximum satisfaction within enterprise.
4.3 Effectiveness of business decisions
It can be evaluated that there are varied decisions identified that are being taken by the manager of firm during specified period of time. Thus, business is required to rely on the concept of customer satisfaction by producing the products and services as per their needs. All these decisions taken by the manager are considered as effectual. It is because of these identified decisions, firm has made unique brand image in the retail market (Jaeger and et.al., 2013). The effectiveness of such business decisions helps Morison to implement effectual decisions and increases client satisfaction. It ultimately helps in increasing the sales and profitability of business. Following are the advantages and disadvantages of effectiveness of business decisions are as follows-
- It allows every individual to participate in decision making process and also reduce the chance of errors.
- Further, it also helps in making effective judgements in order to gain high quality decisions.
- Effective business decisions helps business reducing the risk and uncertainities linked with decisions.
- However, rational decision making within business requires careful consideration and relevant data which taken long time so that quick decisions cannot be made at workplace.
- Also, delay in making decision affects the business and management is required to adopt alternative solution in regard to that.
It can be articulated from the above research that adopting effective organizational structure and culture helps in achieving the business effectiveness. Also, undertaking the best leadership style help the manager of Morrison to encourage workers and to obtain the desired success. Thus, by assessing varied types of management approaches, an appropriate decision can be taken by the manager to satisfy the needs of individual. Further, it is significant for Morrison to facilitate innovation and creativity within firm and attain goals.
Books and Journals
- Bhattacharya, A. and et. al., 2014. Green supply chain performance measurement using fuzzy ANP-based balanced scorecard: a collaborative decision-making approach. Production Planning & Control.
- Davies, C. A. and Brown, G., 2014. Using design principles to deliver strategy in a new organisational structure. Statistical Journal of the IAOS.
- Fisher, D. R., Campbell, L. K. and Svendsen, E. S., 2012. The organisational structure of urban environmental stewardship. Environmental Politics.
- Fletcher, G. J. and Fitness, J., 2014. Knowledge structures in close relationships: A social psychological approach. Psychology Press.
- Foss, L., Woll, K. and Moilanen, M., 2013. Creativity and implementations of new ideas: do organisational structure, work environment and gender matter?. International Journal of Gender and Entrepreneurship.