INTRODUCTION TO HEALTH AND SOCIAL CARE
Health and social care services can be termed as integration between the services that are available and provided by the medical practitioners. These services also combine different behavioral, biological and principles of nourishment to make services available to the people who are in need of the same (Sayce, 2014). These people can be someone suffering from mental or physical disability or other challenges. In this research paper, researcher will undertake an analysis of elements that are present within health and social care and the hygiene within the same with respect to handicaps, illness, etc (Allott, 2005). Other than this, researcher will also talk about the various regulations and policy standards that are designed for the people with specific needs. Numerous acts and regulations and research about the same will help learners to get to know more about the ways in which specific needs of people has transformed over the time. Similar to the same, this report will serve as an understanding in depicting the needs of people with specific requirements (Myers, 2004).
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1.1 Analyze concepts of disability, illness and behavior
According to WHO (World Health Organization), health can be regarded as something which details up the state of complete physical and mental well being of any person. According to researcher, health can be determined as a state where a person is away from any kind of disease and remains healthy (Abreu, David and Crowther, 2005). Remaining healthy can be termed as staying away from any kind of infection and maintaining proper body hygiene, so as to avoid future illness. Definition for disability describes that it is a mental or physical condition of a person that does not allow a person to act normally and might also restrict his movements. If taken for example, a person’s body does not allow him to do routine like brushing teeth, strolling, bathing, etc, then he can be termed as handicapped (Billingsley and Lang, 2002).
Other than this, illness or health issue can be said as something that often restricts a person from doing regular jobs. This can be either permanent or temporary. Coming on to the illness, which is in British sense is something that stays with a person for a period where a person is sick by something that impacts his body and mind. It has a major impact on both mind and body of an individual (Schneider and Clegg, 2009). Thus health issues or problems can be termed as a situation where a person identifies himself into a psychological or substantial state where he is unable to fight the same. The reason can be any like it may be momentary or might also lead to extreme health problem or suffering.
Coming on to the behavior, which is a situation wherein a person portrays a kind of conduct and reacts as per the circumstances. Behavior is also impacted by certain devices in which it often takes place and could also add to particular health errors bit if compiled with correctly, can prevent lot of health care errors (Adams, 2003). Based on social concepts, behavioral effect can additionally serve in examine the effect which comes on the device modification. Healthcare service providers thus can make use of different strategies which might influence the behavior as well as wellness of people (Moreau and Mertens, 2013).
1.2 Assessment of perceptions of specific needs that changed over time
Mental illness and disability myths have come across a long way breaking down all the preconceptions and misinterpretation developed in relation to the same previously. People facing this challenge were taken as disadvantaged people of the society. There were different discriminations that were practiced within society, healthcare institutions, etc (Moriarty, Manthorpe and Cornes , 2014). It further restricted people from getting better medical aid and also limited their accessibility to housing, insurance, work, and other basic services of the society. This fact makes it very clear that people with mental disability will not given due help in early days (Iliffe and et.al, 2005). Thus it can be said that with changing time, huge has been witnessed in the society as people have become knowledgeable and have proper information about the reasons behind the troubles faced by such people within society. This further assisted in changing face of society and created favorable state of mind of the people as support from society and community can be clearly seen (Larkin, 2009).
Facial deformity has emerged to be another very prominent health and well-being related issue, which in recent years has gained a lot of popularity. It is a term which describes various deformity of the face (Chesnay and Anderson, 2008). Earlier, such care groups wanted to get rid of the deformity at any cost, as they used to think that the society would not accept them. Due to this reason, majority of them had formed the opinion that once they suffer from cases of facial deformity, their life would be adversely affected by it. But now times have changed, people, both the patient as well as society is accepting cases of facial deformity and do not view it as something which is ugly and outcast the people suffering from it (Tarren-Sweeney and Vetere, 2013). Rather they are being accepted and the ones suffering from it also have started to live a free life, wherein they do not pay to much attention to what the society might think or perceive of them.
1.3 Analyze the impact of legislation, social policy, society and culture
Legislations and different societal norms bring upon a great impact on the kind of treatment given to physically and mentally disabled people. Numerous policies, acts and regularities have been set up consciously for all these special people of society and the ones with specific requirement (Davies, 2007). Like for instance, people with physical defect, the act that came into existence is Impairment and Equality Act of 2010, and for mental disabilities, Mental Wellness Act, 2007 has been formulated. Such acts and regulations have helped in bringing in protection and security to individuals who are suffering from any kind of disability (Mountstephen, 2012). Because of all these acts drafted by government and central administrative bodies, organizations working in health and social care sectors have also initiated the evaluation of providing secure life styles to these individuals. This further helped in providing them with the secure treatments and medical aids which have helped in improving their life styles (Gold and Shuman, 2009).
Moreover, there are many other changes have been witnessed within society and people because in change of their mindsets and beliefs. People being an active member of society have started doing charity and also are readily available to provide assistance whenever needed (Parry and Drogin, 2007). Such people these days are also encouraged to showcase their talents and other skill competencies that they might possess.
Societal norms also have changed by great margins. It can be supported through fact that societies now do not see people suffering from specific needs as someone who must be unfair treatment and be out casted. Rather, people consider those with specific needs to be an integral part of the society and aim to provide them an equal and fair treatment at all times. This has resulted in a sea change in behavior of such individuals.
Cultural aspects in HSC also have changed significantly. It can be supported through fact that people across various cultures and traditions see people suffering with specific needs to be equal and worthy to receive fair treatment. Because of this very reason, there has been a radical change in the treatment that such people are receiving.
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2.1 Analyze the care needs of individuals with specific needs
Children who suffer from physical impairments have different needs and also require special treatment. Some children possess some imperceptible deformity which might have come up due to some conditions like that of chronic fatigue syndrome or arthritis, etc. Thus when it comes to provision of social care to such disabled children, it will also be feasible to look on to the type of practical help that needs to be provided to such special people instead of working together on their needs (Martin and Henderson, 2001). Such children can be supported in their daily routine activities like those of bathing, nature’s call, eating food, getting up from bed;having interactions with people, etc. thus it is very important to take care of the special needs of these children so that they can recover from their ill conditions (Nolan, 2005).
2.2 Current system for supporting individuals
Numerous facilities are being provided to the people who come up with specific needs. Other than this, there are also different public and private firms that are operating in UK for helping such people so as to provide them healthy living. For generating better understanding of the same, a case has been presented which showcases a person in need of both formal and informal care after being diagnosed with dementia at initial stage (Brechin, Brown and Eby, 2000). There is a helpline run and operated by National Dementia where there is well structure service system to provide help and guidance to the people in need. It provides complete consultancy to them for handling difficult situation in better manner and also to keep composed situation of mind (Brown, 2012). Legally also, a great support is available for such people suffering from dementia because it is a degenerative situation and also senses urgency of planning individual’s future early. Similar is the situation for the lady as in order to start working, she has to make appropriate arrangements for the safety of her child who is suffering from a disability (Corway and Brett, 2012). Thus she can also admit her child into a day care which will help her by taking care of her young child especially at the time when parents are not around.
2.3 The services available in a chosen locality for individuals
There are many health and social care centers that are working in UK for the people suffering from different kind of mental illness. These may be working in both public and private sector with a single motto of serving the society and people with special needs for their betterment and recovery (Social care, 2013). National Health Service is one of those organizations that are working in UK under government operation and support to provide healthcare facilities at low costs to the people in need and also the ones who cannot afford the same. There are different day care centers that are also operating in the country to provide normal living to the people suffering from mental illness so as to avoid their lives getting vulnerable (Charmaz, 2010). On the counter part, for the people who are suffering problem of mobility like those of soldiers who might have lost their body part in some war situations, can be provided wheelchairs or other impairment to make their lives easy and normal. NHS also provides such services with the support of local communities and government so that people with physical difficulty can be served in proper manner (Sayce, 2014).
The negative points that can be highlighted about the day care center are the lack of supervision, ignorance on the part of care workers, quality of services provided, and stubborn nature of service users that are not handled efficiently by care workers, etc. if looked on the other hand, NHS also comes with numerous positive aspects as well like easy availability of right services, cooperative GPs, reduced prices for services, best among public health care organizations in UK, etc (Allott, 2005).
3.1 The approaches and interventions available to support individuals with specific needs
Guardian ship can be termed as an interference which can be provided to people who suffer from some or the other disability. This need support so that they can comply with their physical and mental state (Myers, 2004). There are different psychotherapists that have been appointed by government so that these people with specific needs can be supported in an effective manner. Guardian ship also plays an important role in forming an advocacy wherein the people are provided with legal support in form of consultancies and authorative advices so that they can get both medical and moral support (Abreu, David and Crowther, 2005). Some of the actions like direct help as well as self support can be taken on individual level so that they can improve their standards of living and also live comfortable life even with their impairment. Aids for daily living (ADL) is a term used for such people which talks about the daily routine job that an individual performs in his normal life such as dressing, bathing, chores, use of different interactive devices, etc also help in supporting the lives of individuals with disability which can be further supported by technology (Billingsley and Lang, 2002).
3.2 Effectiveness of intervention strategies for an individual
All the tools that have been identified above will strongly support needs of individuals with specific needs and will also help in improving their standards of living. There are different intervention strategies which can also be formed as a safeguard for protecting them from any kind of abuse (Schneider and Clegg, 2009). Because of these medical support systems, disabled people have great support as they can choose the best technologically supported tool which might be helpful to them. Advocacy as well as guardianship has supported numerous people by providing them morale and legal support so that they can take upon all the challenges coming from societal end (Adams, 2003). Even though the costs that are incurred on these are comparatively higher but because of the presence of government aided organizations like NHS, these costs can be worth managing. Like for example, the specific needs of person with mental disability is the one that is related to his impairment or any serious occupational block which needs to helped out with the machines or substitute tools that have been developed (Moreau and Mertens, 2013).
3.3 Potential impact of emerging developments on support for individuals
Other than all the discussions taken above, there have also been different developmental activities that are taking place within health and social service industry. This works rigorously in protecting individuals from challenges that come up from society they live in. There have also been numerous acts and regulations passed on by government such as Mental Health Act of 2007, Disability Discrimination Act of 2005 and Health and Social Care act of 2008 (Iliffe and et.al, 2005). All these acts and regulations have critically helped in giving priority to the people’s problem and also providing with best of the treatments that are available at international level. These services and care is provided to them at low cost. Society is also taking different initiatives each at individual level by organizing charities, sponsorships, donations, etc in order to help people who actually need their support (Corway and Brett, 2012).
The improvements that can be brought in the services that are provided to the people with specific needs are as follows:
- Mapping the entire patient journey so as to look for the opportunities for bringing for the improvements by ways of visualizing the patient’s journey as well as his point of inefficiency (Larkin, 2009).
- Getting to know the bottlenecks that will help in determining the pace on which the healthcare process works. The improvements in the same can be made further.
- Building trust is also an important requirement to come up with mutual relationships with the people with specific needs and also to provide better healthcare services. This section in NHS will help in better operational activities (Chesnay and Anderson, 2008).
4.1 Different concepts of challenging behaviour
There have also been witnessed numbers of challenges from the behavioural patterns of people especially with the teenagers with learning disability and also with the recovering drug addicts. The challenges faced from them are as mentioned below:
Learning Disabilities – Learning disabilities can be found often in both teenagers and addicts. Addicts find it difficult to learn because their sensory power gets weaken due to their addiction and as a result they get trapped into the problems of ineffective learning (Tarren-Sweeney and Vetere, 2013).
Physical Disabilities – Physical disabilities also cause challenging behavior from teenagers and addicts. For instance, a person suffers blindness then he finds it difficult to learn from visual means which is quite common and easy way for people to learn (Davies, 2007).
Ill Health – Ill health can be both physical and mental and this can be found often in drug addicts because their addiction makes this happen. It is a kind of challenging behavior which can only be cured once the addiction is cured.
Physical Impairment – Physical impairment in teenagers is common now days and it becomes challenging for them to learn something easily due to their physical impairment. This is followed by a challenging behavior from teenagers. For example, a teenager with disability will be unable to go to school and get education. Due to this, they might try to adopt prohibited means of sustaining life (Mountstephen, 2012).
Brain Injury – Brain injury can often be found in drug addicts because their addiction is something that affects their brain to the most and this causes them to think and behave in some unusual manner. The brain injury happens when the addiction goes beyond the limit and this is followed by challenging behavior within the individuals. It must be cured appropriately because this type of behavior is very difficult to handle and change (Gold and Shuman, 2009).
Drugs and Alcohol – Drugs and alcohol is concerned with the addicts and these are common means for encouraging challenging behavior from individuals. Sometimes, teenagers also indulge into drugs and alcohol and just because they are young, their metabolism is not ready to absorb drugs as well as alcohol and thus, they become weak more quickly than those of normal addicts and depicts challenging behavior (Parry and Drogin, 2007).
4.2 Potential impact of challenging behaviour on health and social care organizations
There have also been witnessed different challenging behaviours within healthcare organizations like that of NHS and because of such challenges, companies have to come up with modifications in existing or new policies so as to cope such challenges and also face them with due solutions on regular basis (Martin and Henderson, 2001). Different policies have been defined to handle these challenges which are as mentioned below.
Individual risk management and assessment: For this purpose, NHS and similar businesses have to come up with some practical and reasonable steps to ensure that risks are handled properly with proper actions to eliminate the same (Nolan, 2005). These risks might be from challenging behaviors of patients which needs to be controlled timely.
Protection of vulnerable adults: This policy will help in ensuring that staff members understands clearly the ways in which they need to support people and keep them safe from the challenging behavior of the people (Brechin, Brown and Eby, 2000).
Management of violence towards staff: This can be controlled by implementing some concrete policies so as to take straightforward action towards employees who do not comply with the rules and practice unethical behavior towards their patients (Mental or physical disabilities and discrimination, 2012).
4.3 Strategies for working with challenging behaviours
Strategies that can be adopted to protect people with challenging behaviour are as follows:
Adapting to the environment: This technique will help in making patient feel good within the atmosphere that is provided to him but might be a challenge for the service providers as they have to first look at the health benefits that are provided by that environment to the patients, thus making modifications within the same accordingly (Social care, 2013).
Use of positive behavioural support: This strategy might help in meeting the need towards behaviours expected by patients. The advantage that this strategy will serve as it will help in learning the different patient behaviour, but the drawback of the same is that it will develop resistive attitude of people (Myers, 2004).
Thus in a nutshell it can be said that in order to meet the specific needs of different people suffering from mental or physical challenge. Health and social care organizations also have come up with numerous initiatives along with the support of different service providers so as to improvise upon the service qualities. They have also emphasized on providing quality environment to people with specific needs with the implementation different regulations and policies.
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