INTRODUCTION TO HOSPITALITY SECTOR
Hospitality sector offers wide range of services to its customers such accommodation, food, lodging transportation etc. These all are giving by the organizations to its service users because of gain the huge market share. In Australia, Tourism and hospitality segment is growing with fast speed and developed the various growth opportunities for both communities and nation. The present research is based on health and well being of staff members in the hospitality sector. To understand this, some previous research papers have published on stressors on employee turnover rate of the organizations are taking into the consideration.
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Stressors Faced by Hospitality Industry
In this study, scholar investigated the issue of stress and examines its effect on well-being of the worker in hospitality sector. In order to clearly understand and address all the work stressors, scholar has selected a sample of 164 managers and 65 employees who were working in 65 different hotels based on hourly wages rate. Scholar interviewed all the participants on eight days, as per the results, scholar discovered that heavy or peak work load and interpersonal tension are the most significant work stressors that give rises to cause stress among personnel. Moreover, comparative study between hotels managers versus employees founded that managers are comparatively experienced high level of stress relatively to that of employees. At the end, scholar studied the link between stress and health and wellbeing of the staff, its result was that co-workers stressors affected personnel health adversely. Moreover, interpersonal tension also is the reason for high dissatisfaction and resulted in higher turnover.
The aim of the above study was to construct a theoretical framework explaining the role of job characteristics and features in hospitality sector. Researcher gathered required information from 346 employees who were working in the China hospitality industry. SEM and regression analysis techniques have been used to test and examine the data. The report founded that work pressure create dissatisfaction among workers and as a result, employee willing to search other employment opportunities caused high turnover. The research discovered that HJC greatly affect job stress situation and result in greater absenteeism and turnover. However, the study has several limitations, the most important is investigator applied cross-sectional and correlation design which declines the level of excellent and clear understanding of causal relationship. Further, HJC measures were subjective based upon the statement given by the employees. In addition, data has been collected only from Chinese workers not from the overall world, thus, it limits the area of the research.
Strategies for Reducing these Stressors
The purpose of this study was to investigate that how work-life balance activities and practices influence workers whether to stay or leave the organization. In this article, scholar pay specific focus to WLB problems and issues and its effect on staff turnover in hospitality and tourism industry. It was a qualitative study, in which, various themes such as job attitude, employee dimension, WLB and firms strategies and practices to retain talented and skilled workers have been designed. This study discovered that emotional exhaustion as well as job burnout likes sabotage and cynicism is the most significant factors that are the results of high staff turnover and less retention. In this report, scholar only incorporated qualitative methodology and did not pay attention to the quantitative aspect, such as data, facts and figures about number of workers leaving from the organization. Moreover, this study only evaluated and analyzed historical literature articles by following secondary research and did not applied primary data collection technique such as survey. However, in the changing period, where corporate world change at very faster pace, conducting only secondary research cannot be considered as a valid and appropriate way, thus, reliability of the findings cannot be assured.
In study, Meloury and Signal, 2014 aimed at examining and evaluation the aggression behaviour among chefs in culinary industry across the globe. In the historic period, limited researches had been carried out on that topic and founded that there is greater level of aggression in the respective industry because of a number of factors such as environmental, psychological and physical embedded in people’s culture. Referring above article, scholar targeted at testing that whether aggression is high among chefs or not, and if yes, then identifying the responsible factors for such stressful conditions. Scholar surveyed 91 chefs through a self-reporting survey encompassing demographic as well as aggression questionnaire. The result of the survey founded that the level of aggressiveness is higher in chefs relatively to that of rest of the population. Moreover, male chefs comparatively have more aggressive nature than that of other staff members in hotel’s kitchen. Although, this research was aims at analysing the entire world, however, sample of 91 chefs had been selected only from Central Queensland, Australia. Thus, it might have a negative affect towards the quality and validity of the findings and discussion.
In this research, scholar investigated the role of work or professional life balance on workers stress in hotel industry. The findings of the study regarding job demand and job control on stressful conditions observed that excessive demand resulted in lowering job control. Moreover, it has been discovered that professional and personal life balance practices such as flexible working arrangements, part-time working, counselling and others helps workers to minimize stress. In order to collect data, researcher has surveyed employees who are full-time worker in 4-star hotel and delivering food and beverage services to the consumers. However, investigator has used both quantitative and qualitative methodology to evaluate and examine the selected issue. Thus, the selected sample size is very small, therefore, the statistical results and findings cannot be considered significant and valid. But still, the study conducted an in-depth study and investigation through analysing various models such as Karasek’s DC model, and work stressors like occupational stressors and personal differences, self-determination, efficacy, personality, locus of control and so on. As per the findings, it has been observed that job control maximizes the staff working quality, however, work-life balance helps hoteliers to create favourable and healthier environment at the workplace and resulted in less job stress.
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As per this study, in the period of 1990sm, Australian workers faced extensive work pressure and heavy load due to irregular working pattern as well as intensification. This research work has particularly emphasized upon three facets of QWL in younger-age workers in hospitality and retailing sector. After interviewing the participants selected, it has been founded that hours flexibility means irregular working hours helps workers to maintain well-balance between their personal and professional life and access their career.
Hotel should give more flexible working arrangement to its workers such as part-time working, online worker, short-term contract and many others enable people to suit their social life effectively. Along with this, career potential should be determined by the hospitality industry for the personnel. Employee should receive high appreciation from their superiors on the basis of their performance, however, referring retail sector, employees enhance learning managerial skills helps to get advanced promotional opportunities
- Chiang, F.F., Birtch, T.A. and Kwan, H.K., 2010. The moderating roles of job control and work-life balance practices on employee stress in the hotel and catering industry. International Journal of Hospitality Management.
- Deery, M., 2008. Talent management, work-life balance and retention strategies. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management.
- Meloury, J. and Signal, T., 2014. When the plate is full: Aggression among chefs. International Journal of Hospitality Management.
- O’Neill, J.W. and Davis, K., 2011. Work stress and well-being in the hotel industry. International journal of hospitality management.