Heritage tourism provides better opportunity to national and international tourists for understanding of incredible values of historical places. Cultural tourism is subset of tourism which aids all visitors to get aware about the lifestyle of people at different locations, their history, religion, art and other cultural things in the country (Alegre, Cladera and Sard, 2013). United Kingdom (UK) has vast history in heritage and cultural tourism sector. It attracts many national and international visitors to visit these places. The present report represents the growth and development of heritage and cultural industry in UK. It defines purpose of heritage and cultural attractions in meeting the requirements of various visitors. Further, it describes different type of ownership for management of heritage sites in United Kingdom. In addition to this, it also explains roles and responsibilities of firms in heritage and cultural industry.
1.1 Growth and development of the heritage and cultural industry in UK
Heritage and cultural sector has done appropriate growth and development in United Kingdom. It helps to provide employment opportunities and improve contribution in GDP (Gross Domestic Product) for heritage and cultural sector. In addition to this, government emphasizes to develop and renovate museum and historical places. They also add many ancient things to attract tourists to visit these sites again. These efforts also contribute in playing effective role to increase frequency of visitors in United Kingdom (Azariah, 2012). Due to these reasons, this sector is growing as compare to past years. Authorities of UK earn effective income and revenues by taking charges from national and international tourists to visit these places in the nation. Government of United Kingdom spends much money to develop many heritage and cultural sites from generated income effectively. For example, authorities of UK also repairs and renovate the Tower of London to maintain its importance in the world. In addition to this, government of United Kingdom resolves much issue like employment, shortage of resources to increase growth and development of this industry. For example, heritage tourism provided 209390 jobs to local citizens of UK. These things also helped many people to get appropriate job in the nation. Effective human resources help in improving the heritage and cultural tourism operations which aid to grow this industry in United Kingdom (Heritage and the Economy, 2013).
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Government of Britain focuses on establishing hotels and resorts to provide better facilities to visitors at tourist destinations in the nation. In addition to this, they provide huge help to increase this sector in UK. For example, authorities offer loan facilities on lower interest rate, provide land for infrastructure development to many hospitality organization like Star woods and Thomas cook in the country. Further, they also motivate small and medium organizations to come into tourism sector to provide effective services at popular tourist destinations. These types of effective efforts also encourage local and international visitors to visit historical and cultural places in United Kingdom. They also increase frequency of tourist in those sites as comparison to previous years. As per report of historic England, it was found that 58. 6 million people come to visit only heritage and cultural sites in the UK.
Further, heritage and cultural sector also help to increase the contribution in Gross domestic product by providing various types of services and facilities to visitors in the United Kingdom. As per historic England data, Heritage and cultural sector gave 14 billion contribute in GDP. It was also greater than records of 2010 in the nation. This sector has also earned 61.1 million pounds profit per year with help of all these efforts in the United Kingdom (Heritage and the Economy, 2013).
In addition to this, Government of UK provides transportation services like buses, trains as well as planes in affordable price to the international and national tourists to reach tourist destinations. Further, authorities of UK also provide online facilities by which tourists can arrange their transportation facilities like taxi and cabs. Apart from that, they also encourage many private tour-operators which help visitors to visit these historical places in United Kingdom. This process also increases the profit heritage and cultural sector in the nation (Baddeley and Font, 2011). It also contributes to play effective role for the development and growth of this sector in Britain.
1.2 Potential conflicts in the conservation of heritage and cultural resources
International agencies face many potential conflicts in conservation of heritage and cultural resources in Tibet. It is stated below in the paragraph:
Intercontinental hotel suffers with various issues in Tibet. This thing also affects its infrastructure development and other operations in the country. Enterprise is faced with political conflicts such as London-based Free Tibet to boycott from nation. This issue has generated adverse effects in order to manage its operations of intercontinental group. In addition to this, domestic people have created severe problems for managing their business in Tibet. Further, Chinese government also interrupts the operations of nation. Mainly, they wanted to build new heritage and cultural locations in order to develop heritage and cultural industry in the country (Buda and McIntosh, 2013). These interruptions have disappointed people of Tibet and created issues for conservation of heritage and cultural resources.
Reasons of conflicts
There are many social groups, local communities as well as local citizens who have created many problems such as political conflicts for expansion of global projects in Tibet. Mainly, citizens of nation who do not want improvement in heritage-and culture as they think that it would reduce the natural beauty of area. This process can be responsible for environment pollution in the country. Further, this development can enhance the frequency of visitors which can produces interruption in life of people as well as local societies in the nation. In addition to this, many local groups are also against the operations of Chinese government in Tibet. Education level of people is not so effective as compared to other countries. As a result, they have created disturbances to manage operations like expansion of travel and tourism activities of intercontinental group in the country (Vandenbrink, 2013). These things produce complexities for conservation of heritage and cultural resources in Tibet.
As per case study, there are many opinions to reduce these problems in Tibet. Government of nation should increase education in people which can contribute to play effective role for them to get aware about conservation of heritage and cultural resources. Further, International agencies should offer employment opportunities to local people for their effective growth in the Tibet (Burns, Palmer and Lester, 2010). These methods can aid hospitality organization to establish its business in optimistic manner in the country. These practices also help people to become loyal and honest towards intercontinental hotel in Tibet. This way, enterprise can decrease its political issues in the nation. Further enterprise should focus on environment friendly activities like plantation of trees, marathon as well as Corporate Social Responsibilities (CSR) for appropriate improvement of Tibetan people. These types of efforts can help the management of intercontinental hotel to develop positive image in the mind of local citizens and societies (Dallen, 2011). With the help of these solutions, international agencies can reduce complexities among people at Tibet. As a result, it also helps to secure heritage and cultural resources in the nation.
2.1 Assess the goal of heritage and cultural attractions in meeting the requirements of various visitors
Research, entertainment, recreation and education are used to meet needs of various customers like students, families, children, media as well as scientists in order to attract for heritage and cultural sites in United Kingdom. It is represented as follows.
Heritage and cultural attractions associates various historical places and museums in Britain. For example, Natural History Museum and British Museum authorities conduct many operations such presentation of documentary film on the historical sites to lure various kinds of tourists like scientists, media, students as well as children (Damonte, Collins and Megehee, 2012).
Research helps to fulfill the needs of tourists by attracting towards heritage and cultural sites in the country. Authorities of Natural history and British museum can give appropriate knowledge to people regarding artistic, scientific facts as well as cultural activities. This approach contributes effective role to create appropriate awareness by explaining specialty of museum to students, researchers as well as scientists at cultural and heritage places. It aids management of museums to lure maximum tourists to meet their requirements at historical sites (Aktas, Aksu and çizel, 2003). This way, Natural and British museum complete their goals to increase attraction towards heritage and cultural sites in the mind of tourists. Authorities of these places also perform many operations like renovation of places in a regular time intervals. In addition to this, they also conduct deep research to add valuable ancient things to maintain value of Museum front of tourist every year. In addition, this approach lures researchers and students for further study on British and natural history museum (Becken and Hay, 2007). It also aids in increasing popularity of these historical sites in the world which attract towards them.
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The main goal of Cultural and heritage attractions give effective information with help of learning method. It helps the children, media and researchers to know value of the Natural history and British museum. This way, management of authorities gives appropriate knowledge about culture, history as well as artistic valuable things to national and international tourist at these historical sites in United Kingdom (Boniface and Cooper, 2009). In addition, this thing also contribute effective role for visitors to increase its attraction towards British and natural history museum in the nation.
Objectives of cultural and heritage attractions give better entertainment in order to meet needs of various visitors like children, scientists, students to get aware regarding culture, old life style and ancient things of people at historical sites. These things also help in increasing the frequency of tourists in British and natural history museum (Dallen, Timothy and Danie., 2006). With help of this process, they can provide appropriate entertainment for visitors at heritage and cultural sites.
Goal of heritage and cultural attractions aid in performing creative activities like developing new paintings and grouping of ancient things. This process helps in maintaining the value of Natural history and British museum. Further, it contribute to play effective role in meeting the aims of students, media, researchers as well as culture lovers at historical sites in United Kingdom. These kind of creative actions also help to enhance frequency of tourists which produces better profit and revenues for natural history and British Museum in the nation (Damonte, Collins and Megehee, 2012).
3.1 Assessing the effect of various kinds of ownership
There are many types of ownerships which are used in heritage and cultural sector. Some of them are described below the paragraph.
Proprietorships- It is operated by single person. Proprietorship does not require more paper work for handling heritage and cultural destinations in the nation. As per Dann and Liebman (2009), This business is also categorised under private sector. In this approach, only one owner is liable to manage all activities which are performed for cultural and heritage sites in the country. The main objective of this ownership to earn more profit in this industry (Dann and Liebman, 2009). On the other side, there are many issues in proprietorship business. Single person is responsible to manage business related risk like debts, loans and court judgements which also increases issues for him (Hall and Clayton, 2009). For example, Blenheim palace is the famous place which is handled under sole proprietorship in the United Kingdom.
Partnership- This ownership is handled by two or more people to organize business activities of historical and cultural sites in UK. This process needs more documentation as comparison of another business. As per Hall and Page (2006). the main purpose of ownership is earn more income from heritage and cultural sites in the United Kingdom. Further, this business also comes under private sector in the UK. Partnership ownership also reduces risk of business because many operations are organized by two or more people which provides huge reliability to manage the work of historical sites in the nation (Hall and Page, 2006). However, it creates more complexities to take any type of decision for development of business due to different perception of individuals. This process creates problems in various development activities of heritage and cultural sites in the nation (Inskipp, 2008). For example, Blaenavon Industrial Landscape is also hold partnership ownership in United Kingdom.
Limited Partnerships- This type of ownership is very costly, complex to establish and manage in the nation. It does not suggested for the small business owners due to lot of issues in managing business activities. According to Iwashita (2008), Limited partnership is started by organization or group of members who take investment from public in order to expand development activities of historical and cultural sites. Further, The main aim of this ownership is to produce more income and profit from visitors by giving them different facilitates in the historical sites (Iwashita, 2008). Further this business more emphasize on social work in nation. James (2000), general associates control and organize day-to-day action of handling heritage and cultural operations at historical sites in the nation. They are also liable for business debts, court judgment, loan settlement and other allegations. They have managing power for taking and implement daily business decisions in the business (James, 2000). For example, Derwent Valley Mills is best example of limited partnership which was situated in 2001 in Britain.
Public- It also associate government in this business. In the public ownership, maximum shares are contained by government which is responsible in managing historical and cultural destinations in United Kingdom. According to Sharpley (2010), goal of public business provides effective services to visit heritage destinations in the nation. Then after, they focus on earning profit from tourists in UK. This type of ownership has many benefits to organize different activities in the business. In addition to this, local authorities also use their resources to develop heritage and cultural sites in the nation. In addition to this, public business organizations also get exemption in service and income tax in United Kingdom. Further, this ownership also decreases the chances of risk to manage various operations of heritage and cultural sites in the nation (Sharpley, 2010). However, it takes more time to implement any type of development decision at historical site in the country. For example, London eye is contains Public ownership which is handled by government.
3.2 Roles and responsibilities of corporation
Generally, every enterprise plays different roles and responsibilities in heritage and cultural industry.
Role and responsibilities of Heritage Lottery fund
Heritage lottery fund (HLF) is government organization in United Kingdom. This organization contribute effective role for allocate money to development of arts, charities, health, education, environment, heritage as well as sport activities. Percentage of money is also fixed on various area. As per data, HLF firm allot 20 percent money on art development which also encourages art activities in the United Kingdom. Further, Heritage Lottery fund spends 40 percent monetary funds on charities, education as well as environment which also help to create effective awareness regarding heritage and cultural sites in people of UK. In addition to this, enterprise also expend 20 percent money on improvement of heritage sites which contribute effective to attract many visitors in United Kingdom. Further, HLF also consumes 20 percent money on development sport areas which aid to develop this activity in the nation (Our history, 2016). This way, organisation contribute effective role in improving heritage and cultural sites in the United Kingdom.
Heritage Lottery fund is also responsible for managing corporate information, research and evaluation as well as strategy planning for development heritage and cultural sites in United Kingdom. In addition to this, corporate information also helps the organisation to know about present trend and lifestyle of people in the nation. This process also aids to make new strategies for better improvement of historical and cultural sites in the country. Further, HLF prepares strategic plan as future demand of people in order to increase importance of this sector in UK. A part from that, it also conduct research and evaluation to analyse present value of heritage and cultural sites in the Britain. This thing also aids the Heritage lottery fund to allocate money for further expansion and improvement of specific heritage and cultural site in the country (Our history, 2016).
Role and responsibilities of English heritage
This organisation is registered charity trust which help to manage heritage and cultural sites. It is come under government in the nation. It helps in managing domestic heritage collection in heritage and cultural sector in United Kingdom. English heritage also associates 400 historical sites and monuments in the nation. Further, organization is also securing more than 5,000 years of history of UK. Organization manages London Blue Plaques scheme for effective development of heritage and cultural sites. This thing directly relates with historical figures in the nation. In addition to this, English heritage contribute effective role to define history of Britain front its national and international tourists. Further, organization also gives appropriate efforts to earn better income and profit from all type of visitors in the nation. These efforts also help to improve 400 historical places. In 2014, English heritage earned revenues of 86706000 pounds in Britain.
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Main responsibility of organization is to conserve and secure approximate 400 heritage tourist destinations and monuments in UK. Corporation does not take any type of charge from visitors at least 250 heritage sites such as Dorsett, Maiden Castle and St Catherine's Oratory to motivate them to visit heritage and historical sites in United Kingdom. Organization is liable for enhancing frequency of tourists in historical places by adding valuable ancient things, developing historic sites in the nation. In addition to this, English heritage emphasizes on infrastructure development to provide attractive and dynamic look in order to increase this sector (Our vision and values, 2016). Further, organization gives appropriate entertainment to its visitors by defining the history of ancient historical places in the nation. This way, English heritage can effectively conserve culture and heritage sites of United Kingdom for the future tourists.
4.1 Evaluating methods and media used for interpretation
There are many methods of of media such as tour guides, kiosk machines, documentary films, education fest as well as posters which are used for interpretation within heritage and cultural industry for visitors.
Tour guides- According to Ur Urry and Larsen (2011), British and The Natural History Museum are appointed many tour guides for providing proper information to visitors regarding its ancient things and history of Britain. This method also provide effective reliability to gain different type of knowledge to tourists in the nation (Ur Urry and Larsen, 2011). In addition to this, it also attracts many other visitors to visit the British and natural history museum in UK. However, these approaches create problem for international tourists to understand importance of heritage and cultural sites due to language barriers of tour guides (Becken and Hay, E. 2007).
Kiosk- Generally, it is digital machine which help to describe various types of information to visitors. As per the Buda and McIntosh (2013), British and the Natural history museum are installed many Kiosks machines which contribute effective role for visitors to know about the historical and cultural fact and figures like their specialty (Buda and McIntosh, 2013). For example, any national and international visitors can read about these museum in all languages which give huge reliability to gain various information. On the other side, it creates problems to access knowledge due to technological issues in British and the Natural history museum (Burns, Palmer and Lester, 2010).
Documentary Films- Generally, it contains video films regarding history. Dallen (2011), British and the Natural history museum represents documentary films to define history in systematic manner which provide huge reliability for visitors to know about old lifestyle of people and history of ancient kings (Dallen, 2011). This method contribute effective role to entertain tourist in the British and the Natural history museum. According to Dann and Liebman (2009), documentary films provide brief history regarding ancient things which create issues to know the complete details for visitors (Dann and Liebman, 2009).
Education Fest- British and Natural history museum also organize education fest for researchers and students within year in United Kingdom. According to Hall and Clayton, (2009), management of authorities demonstrate various types of ancient things to provide effective information to many visitors at historical sites in the nation (Hall and Clayton, 2009). In addition to this, fest method also contribute effective role for management of museum to increase exchange of culture with international visitors. This way, British and Natural history museum can spread their culture in appropriate way which encourages heritage and cultural activities in the nation (Azariah, 2012).
Posters – As per Burns, Palmer and Lester, (2010), British and the Natural history museum also uses poster and template to provide brief information about many civilizations as well as ancient things which provide effective knowledge to domestic and foreign visitors (Burns, Palmer and Lester, 2010). In addition to this, posters method also help to management of historical sites to cover all areas for provide abbreviate information to visitors.
From the report, it is found that growth and development effectively helps in enhancing frequency of visitors in the heritage and cultural sector. Possible of solutions contribute effective role for intercontinental group to establish their business in Tibet. Further, different type of ownership like proprietorship, partnership as well as public business also helps to manages various business activities to manage operations of heritage and cultural sites in United Kingdom. In addition to this, role and responsibilities of Heritage Lottery funds as well as English heritage organization also help to expand this sector in the nation. It can be concluded that tour guides, kiosk machines, documentary films as well as education fest also aid the national and international tourists to interpret effective information of British and natural history museum in United Kingdom.
Books and journals
- Aktas, A, Aksu, A. and çizel, B., 2003. Tourist profile research: Antalya region example 2001. Tourism Review.
- Alegre, J., Cladera, M. and Sard, M., 2013. Tourist areas: Examining the effects of location attributes on tour-operator package holiday prices. Tourism Management.
- Azariah, D. R., 2012. When travel meets tourism: Tracing discourse in Tony Wheeler's blog. Critical Studies in Media Communication.
- Baddeley, J. and Font, X., 2011. Barriers to tour operator sustainable supply chain management. Tourism recreation research.
- Becken, S. and Hay, E. J., 2007. Tourism and Climate Change. Multilingual Matters.
- Boniface, G. B. and Cooper, C., 2009. Worldwide Destinations Casebook: The Geography of Travel and Tourism. Routledge.
- Buda, M. D. and McIntosh, J. A., 2013. Dark tourism and voyeurism: tourist arrested for “spying” in Iran. International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research.