Introduction to Human Resource Development
Human resource development is part of HRM which deals with training and development of employees. It is significant for entire business organizations to attain objective of growth and expansion. Human resources are main part of business as they have unlimited potential and capabilities. Present project report comprises theories and models of administration and management linked to the intervention of human resource development (Romans, and Lardner, 2005). Development of human resources is essential for any entity in order to grow. There will be explanation of new techniques such as induction for the development of human resources. Report will include description of contemporary development in HRD practice. For gaining better understanding XYZ Ltd is selected as the organizational setting and for practical applicability of theories. XYZ Ltd is a multinational organization dealing in sector of hospitality.
Task 1 Role and contribution of HRD practice to developing different categories of employees and organisation functions
According to Leonard Nadler “human resource development can be defined as series of various organized activities, which are conducted in specified time to produce behavioral changes.” Such activities include leadership, management, professional development etc. Management and leadership are two different things (Armstrong, 2000). However, they are linked and complementary. Leader gives direction, encourages and inspires a team to accomplish organizational goals. There is primary role of management in organization. It creates co-ordination between individual efforts and makes allocation of resources for maximization of competencies in achieving goals and objectives.
An organization conducts its operations with the help of its human resources that can be considered as one of most important possessions of the business unit. Every individual has different way of completing assigned tasks and managing activities at work place. A range of theories are developed in order to identify management style and prospective leaders within the organization (Karami, Analoui, and Cusworth, 2004). Scholars have given their significant contribution in developing human resources within the organization. XYZ Ltd is dealing in sector of hospitality where there is crucial role of HRD. Industry of hospitality is expanding globally and becoming more and more competitive. It is challenged by increasing demand regarding customer orientation, international competition and volatility in market. The theories and models that can be adopted by XYZ Ltd. to develop leadership qualities and management styles are mentioned underneath.
Theories for human resource development
Trait theory/ Great Man (Woman) Theory: The theory is based on assumption that person with leadership qualities possesses different personality traits. These include characteristics as intelligence, perseverance and ambition. As per the theory there are certain traits that are inherited within human nature and leaders have combination of these personality traits or leadership qualities. It is a naturally pleasing theory (Carmeli, and Gefen, 2005). Details are provided in this theory for the knowledge of elements which need to be developed in a leader. It is a traditional approach which cannot be applied in current organization. As it is narrow in terms and does not provide opportunity to new talent.
Contingency theory: In this theory managers make decisions based on the current circumstances. An executive takes appropriate actions based on aspects most vital to the present situation. Managers of XYZ Ltd may use a leadership approach that includes participation from employees, while a leader in the team may wish to use an autocratic approach. It is an alternative to trait theory of leadership. By this theory many external and internal factors can be integrated by manager to deal with situations. It will provide opportunities to leaders to take suitable actions in unexpected situations.
Behavioural Theories: According to this theory leaders can be created and leadership traits can be imbibed within an individual. This theory does not agree to fact that leaders are only one having inborn traits (Bennett, 2005). This theory emphasizes on fact that individuals can equip leadership qualities with passage of time by analysing leader's behaviour. Henceforth, as per behavioural theories leaders can be made instead of being just a born leader. This theory can be implemented by managers for providing opportunity to new talent. New leaders will apply new policies based on innovation and they will complete their work with responsibility.
Mc Gregor's Theory X and Theory Y: This management theory is used to know about work attitudes. In theory X executives believe that employees lack ambition and need incentives to increase productivity (Maley, 2013). In theory Y workforce are naturally driven and take responsibility. Theory X follows an authoritarian style of leadership, while theory Y leaders support participation from employees. For XYZ Ltd theory Y will be more appropriate as it is flexible and decentralized. But there should be limited participation discipline can be made and work can be controlled.
Models of human resource development
360 degree appraisal: Generally this model is used for receiving feedback from member i.e. employees immediate work circle. It includes direct feedback from an employee's subordinates, peers (colleagues), and supervisor(s), as well as a self-evaluation. It may also include feedback from external sources such customers, stakeholders and suppliers. The outcomes are more reliable because the feedback comes from different areas (McGuire, and Jorgensen, 2010). Workforce must accept the feedback process as accurate and fair for it to work effectively and successfully it makes improvement in performance of employees. By using 360 degree appraisal feedback can be received and it can be implemented for improvement and innovation. This will help in achieving better results through the process.
Kirkpatrick’s evaluation model: It is more significant for human resource development for its four level evaluations; starts with reaction, learning, behavior and results. All these measures are suggested for meaningful evaluation for learning and development in business organizations. It makes control easier and allows time to achieve results (Stephens, and Black, 2009). In this theory evaluation is made for both before and after situation for better analysis. It considers cost instead of benefits.
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Human resource development is a complete procedure, not merely a set of mechanisms and techniques. The importance of human resource development increases every day, so it is very vital to encourage and manage human resource development with a long-term perspective. The human resource should be used for the benefit of the organization. The performance of the company depends on the available resources, as well as on its quality and capability as required by the organization from time to time (Ross, 2013). Competent human resources can be said to activate an enabling culture. Thus, human resource development plays important role in making the human resources useful, vital and purposeful. With the suitable human resource development programme, employee becomes more dedicated to their jobs (Stephens, and Black, 2009). They are assessed on the basis of their performance by having a satisfactory performance appraisal system. There are several interventions of human resource development which are as follows:
Training and development programs: This is one of the most widely used methods to develop and increase the knowledge, skill and talent of an individual for attempting a particular task (Cannon. and McGee, 2007). Training is important for newly recruited employees and as well as existing employees of organization (Dandira, 2011). This will ensure that they will perform their job effectively and also with efficiency. It is used for promoting and self improvement. It is also vital along with the launch of new technology and methods. With the help of such programs it develops positive attitude towards team members and organization. The effectiveness of training and development programs depends on the capacity and the interest taken by the superior and also by the subordinate (Tansley, 2011). Such activities are done by line and talent managers and supervised by strategic HR partners.
Appraisal system: Human resource department uses many appraisal systems to increase the work efficiency and productivity of the organization. Appraisals can be given on the half yearly or annually to individual to increase the work efficiency and productivity. For appropriate appraisal 360 degree feedback model can be used. By this XYZ Ltd can provide specific feedback to each and every employee to improve their performance and get good appraisal in future (Garavan, 2005). It encourages review on individual’s performance. This plan is considered to be the most precious aspects and hence this promotes a higher level of honesty. Using appraisal systems management can motivate employees for better and effective work. It can be used for promotion and development of employees.
Self evaluation: It offers an opportunity to individual to contemplate about his performance over the time period being assessed and lists out the strengths and weaknesses. An employee can also specify their success and achievements over the period, as well as parts where they think they can improve (Cappelli, 2008). The manager gets good background information on which to make discussion and objectives. Self evaluations follow the principle which guides the worker through the process. The workforce of an organization is always encouraged to provide support and evidence to areas where they believe they have made success.
Development programs: Development is an action designed to improve the performance of individuals, to meet the need of organizations in future. Management development makes sure that qualified persons will be ready to fill the vacancies when the need arises (Stephens and Black, 2009). For such operations line managers are responsible. They do regular management of human resources and provide technical expertise. Line managers allocate and manage operational costs. The organization’s human resource department uses this strategy to improve the effectiveness by monitoring of their present jobs and to make them prepared for more superior jobs in future. Development programs are also closely associated to training for promotion.
By using above described interventions organization can develop work environment where individual can be ready to work. For coping and deal with environmental changes technological onslaught and new trend in the economy, human resource development is key strategy (Stephens, and Black, 2009). It has been recognized as prime source for strategic advantage. Interventions of HRD lead to improvement and quality performance in organization. It is focused on effective cost management and proper allocation of resources.
Task 2 Contemporary development in HRD practice
Technology has drastically changed the face of the business. In the present scenario, the advent of the internet and computers has increased that impact significantly. Many organizations cannot even work without the use of computer technology (Bennett, 2005). This impact of technology is seen in each and every areas of business, including human resource, where technology continues to have a major impact on human resource practices. In human resource department technology are used with a range of content in different areas with the overarching aim to improve learning. In human resource development performance and learning there are four essential components of paradigms (McGuire and Jorgensen, 2010). First is productivity, in which people are required to enhance their productive skills and increase their participation in the procedure of remunerative employment. Second essential component of paradigm is equity. In global environment for growth and development organization should create an environment which is unbiased. Hence they are required to provide equal opportunities and eradicate economical and political benefits. Third element is sustainability, as per it resources and opportunities should be allocated not only for present generation but also for future generation. Last but not the least element is empowerment (Tansley, 2011). In this development is not only for human resources it should be done by them. There should be adequate participation of employees in decision and procedure which are make to shape their lives.
There are new technologies introduced for recruitment of efficient employees. In such induction is most innovative technique for hiring of new people in organization. It is procedure conducted after selection (Tapomoy, 2006). In this employment detail and date of beginning is sent to candidate for signature and further verification is made. Now a day’s this process are completed through online sources. For making it cost and time effective. E sources deliver a consistent induction course at any time. It delivers right content to right people at right time and place. Strategic HRD partner are linked with the HR present in the organization so they will be communicated HR policies and rules developed by the management of firm (Thomas., 2011). Online induction is 24*7 available. It does not have time and place barrier for accessibility. It is quick and easy web source to guide new recruited employees that how it operates and what it’s like to work here. By this essential information and benefits are provided. Such information is also secured as technology has provided security for it. For access such resources password will be required.
In induction program there is main role of line manager initially planning is done by them for the employment terms of candidate. Their planning includes making contract with new starter before joining. Further they put induction program for new recruitment. In this checklist will be prepared linked to the learning. Assurance will be made by line manager for the right environment setup for the joining date (Brio, 2013). It will include set up of furniture, stationery, telephone, computer and other equipment. Whole process is reviewed by them for setting standards and expectations. Role of line manager also include assurance that induction meets all requirements so that every new member can have a strong start in their new role and they feel part of team as soon as possible.
Various technologies which can be used for human resource development
Online learning trends- It is global trend to use internet in learning communities. In past few years, online learning has grown dramatically. It provides suitability to workforce for study, in aspect of timing and place. By this learning can be provided for best technology without incurring heavy cost for experts. It eliminates geographical hurdles for institutional collaboration to meet human resource development.
Software analytics- Analytics through is the special sauce in HRD. Software analytics is single stack software which is used for collection of sharing of data among different departments. It is amazing leadership and HR tool. By this better communication can be made across the business organization which can be quickly responded.
Real time talent management- By such tools better monitoring for performance can be done. In using such techniques problems are nipped in the bud and facts are collected for recognition of quality performance. This tool offers more productive employee relationships (Cannon. and McGee, 2007). Real time monitoring provides HR and leaders more powers for better and qualitative performance. By such results termination is done of employees who are not according to standards.
Performance management- Enhancement in quality of performance is main byproduct of technological improvement. Computer technology is used for assessment of employee performance. It also includes process of feedback from employees for betterment of the organization.
Training: Information technology makes it possible for human resources experts to teach new team members in a more effective manner. It also helps to access company information and training programs from different locations reduces the need for instructors to work directly with new recruiters on all training (Mcshane, 2011). Good communication will always be necessary at some extent, but training in high tech classrooms makes it possible for the human resource professionals to train many employees quickly and to evaluate their progress through computerized testing programs.
For XYZ Ltd such techniques are so useful by which they provide better services to their customs. By providing adequate training they integrate modern technologies in organization for attain qualitative performance from them (Cappelli, 2008). Training can be provided through online source for cost and time effectiveness. For monitoring of performance of subordinates software can be used. It will be also be beneficial in better communication and coordination in business organization.
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Concept of cross culture models in human resource development
As a conception and as a reality, culture is wide and complex (Bates, 2013). Culture provides a sense of identity and belonging. Human resource department must be examined when they work or handle different cultural background people. Human resource departments are experienced in workplace diversity and cross cultural communication and they are well positioned to implement and develop strategies, policies and practices (Karami, Analoui and Cusworth, 2004). It includes economic globalization and organizational and socio cultural relationship. It has significant impact on field of human resource development. As social and cultural contexts differ leading to diverse human resource development practices, they need to develop globally accepted definition to accommodate the extensive amount of cross nation work (Carmeli and Gefen, 2005). Culture model is a helpful approach for showing the power of culture on an organization and how this influence forms the role and the planned importance of human resource development.
Theory of Hofstede
Hofstede cultural dimensions theory is a frame work for cross cultural communication. According to him, managers in an organization operate according to their country’s values, rather than to the company’s culture (Howard Perlmutter: Internationalization of Multinational Corporations, 2014). It was established through survey in 1960 and 1970s which was edited in 2010.It mainly describes the effects of a culture on the values and relates it to behavior using a structure. It has five dimensions of culture and they are: power distance, time orientation, uncertainty avoidance, individualism versus collectivism and masculinity versus femininity.
Advantages of theory of Hofstede
Hofstede's research is one of the most widely used pieces of research among scholars and practitioners, it has many appealing attribute. This theory is time and cost efficient. At the time of establishment of this theory there was less focus on culture when business were entering in global environment and facing difficulties (What Are The Advantages And Disadvantages Of Hofstede And Trompenaar Cultural Dimensions?,. N.d.). At that time work Hofstede was used as guidance. It is relatively accurate than other theories in its dimensions. The main advantage of this model: most widely and well known, it has appealing attributes and it is consider as a pioneer and pathfinder.
Disadvantages of theory of Hofstede
Theory of Hofstede requires lot of search for its dimensions. Collected data by research are not completely accurate hence such facts are not reliable for decision making. Many times it increases the conflict or disputes of interest. It can create favoritism and biased in the working environment (What Are The Advantages And Disadvantages Of Hofstede And Trompenaar Cultural Dimensions?,. N.d.). As research is conducted from the view point of researcher thus there are chances of unfair and biased finding which is convenient according to researcher but not to organization. Moreover, many other cultural differences can also occur like language problems, culture differences etc in collection of reliable data.
Theory of Perlmutter
Perlmutter found three distinctive orientations which are polycentric, ethnocentric and geocentric. These orientations have some consequences on the business. This model was established in 1969 which revolves around internationalization of multinational corporations. Attempt is made by theory for making prediction that how viability and legitimacy are altered over time.
Advantages of Theory of Perlmutter
The main benefit of this model is; too wide and help in improving management and higher global profits. This model starts from the performance need analysis, then set objectives, design curriculum, select training methods, develop training, deliver the training, and at last evaluate the result. This model provides framework for assessment of differences. It enables benchmarking, comparing and contrasting national cultures for HRD (Howard Perlmutter: Internationalization of Multinational Corporations, 2014). It involves overall development of employees by educating employees as well as their family members. To effectively conduct business in the international marketplace, workforce must understand the business practices and the culture norms of various countries.
Disadvantages of Theory of Perlmutter
In this model more time is required for decision making related to cross culture of development of HRD. It requires high commitment, and high travel and communication costs. It increases overall cost of business.
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Human resource development is a sequence of organized actions, conducted within a particular time and designed to make behavioral changes. It is a process in which workforce of an organization is recognized as its human resource. It considers that human resource is the most precious asset of the company (Brio, 2013). The report discussed about the different theories and models of human resource management and leadership. Modern technology helps the human resource development for giving better and qualitative performance. From this report it is concluded that management and leadership is not the same thing. But they are essential to link and complementary. There is main role of line manager and strategic HR partners in function of HRD. Fundamental models of HRD and theories associated with motivation which is very vital to practical problems and situations.
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