INTRODUCTION TO MARKETING
Marketing myopia is short sighted and inward looking approach that focuses on the needs of the business rather than defining the business and its products in terms of customer's needs and wants (Ottman, Stafford and Hartman, 2006). The concept leads to failure to see and adjust to rapid changes that takes place in the market. It is an advertising strategy that desires of business to make sale of particular product and services with economic market. The present report examines the concept of marketing myopia for Ford motors. The study includes discussion on development of theories and literatures that are related to marketing myopia.
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BACKGROUND TO THE CASE
The mission statement of Ford motors is one team, one plan and one goal. Its mission of one team states that people working together as lean, global enterprise for automotive leadership is measured through customer, employee, dealer, investor, supplier and community satisfaction. Under one plan the company desires to finance plan and enhance balance sheet (Mission statement of Ford, 2015). Further it wants to accelerate development of new products that are requires by its customers. Ford motors has common goal that to make exciting delivery of Ford that can bring profitable growth for all.
Key products and service
Ford motors offers wide range of products and services to its customers that includes automobiles, trucks, buses, tractors, financial services and automotive components.
- The key market target market of Ford motors in China is 21-50 years old male and female that belongs to middle class that have disposable income of 22000 RMB/yuan per household. The individuals can be either single of about to start a family.
- In UK, Germany and Italy the target market of the company is 21-50 years old male or female who belong to lower to upper middle class. Such individuals have need for samll SUV that is economical and affordable (Balmer, 2011).
- In US the market of Ford motors is 21-50 years old male and female belonging to upper to lower middle class. These individual are college educated who resides in urban areas that have active life style.
DEFINITION, DISCUSSION AND DEVELOPMENT MARKETIMG MYOPIA THEORY AND LITERATURE
Marketing myopia does not relates to defining the company and its products as per the needs and wants of the customers. Rather it is inward myopic marketing approach that focuses on the needs of the business. The theory was originally proposed by Theodore Levitt. The concept came into emergence as a result of business failing due to short sighted mindset and illusion that a business is in so called growth industry (Boddy, 2007). This belief has resulted in loss of sight of what customers requires. The growth of firm is threatened, slowed and stooped in ever case. This is not due to the saturation of market but is the result of management failure.
Development of marketing myopia premise
The basic premise for the development of marketing myopia is that there is no saturation in the market instead it is the failure of management to define its business in correct manner. The concept has introduced notion of customer oriented in comparison to product oriented management. Further it focuses on the difference between selling as well as marketing (Badot and Cova, 2008). The premises of marketing myopia is to recognize the scope of marketing and develop theories that can serve needs of society and other stakeholders.
Traditional marketing myopia
When the marketing myopia came into emergence traditionally it lay emphasis on the customers needs and desires but oversees the other stakeholders that are part of firm. Thus this concept has resulted in failure of the corporation to take effective decisions.
New marketing myopia
The new marketing myopia came into emergence when marketers fails to view the broader societal context of business decision making in relation to the hazardous outcomes for the business as well as society. It considers three phenomena that includes single minded focus on customer and excluding the other stakeholders (Kotler and Armstrong, 2010). Another phenomena it covers is that it over narrows the definition of customers and his needs. Last concept is it address is failure to recognize the changes in society that fulfill the necessities of other stakeholders. In new marketing myopia customer is central focus as it was in traditional concept. But the new marketing myopia has been developed to recognize the marketing needs of other stakeholders. For company like Ford other stakeholders can beemployees and customers from target market.
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EVALUATION AND DISCUSSION OF MARKETING MYOPIA ISSUES FROM A MANAGERIAL POINT OF VIEW
In the views of Smith, Drumwright and Gentile this has been stated that concept Levitt advice to avoid marketing myopia by focusing on customers. The author argues that marketers have learned such lesson that results in forming new marketing myopia that can cause distortion of strategic vision and can result in failure of organization. The marketing myopia stems three phenomena. This includes single minded focus on customer and excluding customers. Further it narrows definition of customer and his needs.
Lastly it fails to recognize the changes that are taking place in society (Smith, Drumwright and Gentile, 2010). The author presents that such phenomena are effective in offering vision of marketing management as an activity that engages multiple stakeholders in order to create value. Ford has typically used concept of marketing myopia when one of its product failed in the market. This is because the product was launched as new kind of car instead of promoting its as a product that address immense needs of the customers.
The theory of marketing myopia possess certain limitations that is it major stress on the need of the customers excluding the interest of other stakeholders. It has been argued that the article of Levitt emphasized on the concept of marketing and its role in determining the success of the business (Johnston, 2009). The author states that vision and goal of the organization are defined on the basis of marketing efforts. But the concept has not explained the role as well as need of stakeholder who plays an important part in the organization's future.
Any business might possess excellent product, well defined market segment and market share but this might result in failure of business as it has not considered its stakeholders such as workforce, suppliers or distributors (Eden, 2013). This has been provided that customer need to be focus but organization is required to consider its stakeholders while defining its vision. Further marketers needs to focus on current environmental situations, legal regulations and environmentalists rather than focusing on just customers.
There is another issue related to marketing myopia that is it possess issues related to leadership. Business might fail when its leadership has no purpose. The company needs to define the purpose with respect to market condition (Marketing myopia, 2015). It is essential for the firm to possess purpose and reason to exist. Levitt provided that organization needs to have customer oriented goals but it is essential for management to lead such vision for the purpose of fulfilling the customer oriented targets.
Views of Levitt reflected in the case?
Marketing myopia is referred to as failure of organization's management to recognize the scope of its business. Such mismanagement can be result of product oriented marketing approach instead of relationship oriented strategies. The result of such on business is that firm does not offer unique services or builds long term association with customers. A classic example of marketing myopia was Ford motor company. That has decided to create new car and division known as Edsel in late 1950s (Ellis, 2005). The car of launched to much critical fanfare.
The care suddenly become huge failure. The car was sold terribly sold initially but it has resulted in huge loss to the business. Thus the company has to close down entire division. It has been argued that Edsel was wrong car at wrong time. Ford exposed marketing myopia by failing to consider the expected needs of customers from new car. Rather it has been marketed as the car as new kind of car that is similar to the vehicles already been sold by Ford.
The new brand of Ford has been viewed as product based on marketing approach with no communication between Ford and consumer base. Thus the needs of customers were to be considered typically so as to attain success from the new product. The company might has used the concept in its decision making so that it would have gained growth in the market. The only flaw lies is in the management that fails to bring innovation in the product so as to enhance its recognition in the market (King, Dennis and Wright, 2008).
The company made wrong decision to launch such type of car as in late 1950s customers were not likely to look for large and glitzy cars rather they were in the need for economy sized and conservative styled vehicles. In this case Levitt provided that it is essential to see the company own strength and customer prospective in order to grow in the market for long term. Further there is greater role in enhancing the role of customers needs and wants in order to develop the marketing strategies in future course of time.
Issues surrounding marketing myopia
There are various issues surrounding marketing myopia. These can be enumerated below:
Stakeholders: The concept focuses on the need of the customers and their preferences. Moreover the role of marketing has also been stated repeatedly. But it is important for the business to design its vision by proper researching in the market. The major issue related to marketing myopia is in not considering the stakeholders while investigating the preferences (Mohr, Sengupta and Slater, 2009). This can result in causing major failure for the business as it does not takes into account the needs of the potential stakeholders who are an important part in success of the firm.
Leadership issues: There can failure of the organization if in case its leadership has no purpose for the business. It is essential to state the purpose with respect to market condition. There needs to be existence of reason for which the firm came into emergence. With the failure in leadership the company will fail though it might possess stronger customer base and product (Shank and Lyberger, 2014). Thus this has been stated that in order to attain success in future the firm needs to possess customer oriented goals along with vision to lead the purpose of the customer oriented goals.
There are several recommendation provided to Ford motors regarding the implementation of marketing myopia. These are enumerated in following manner. It has been recommended to business to carry out market research in order to ensure successful launch of the product in the market. This plays very important role in determining the long term success of the organization. Further it results in providing satisfaction to the customers (Kurtz and Boone, 2008). It is suggested to business to become customer oriented rather than product oriented as such would result in achievement of business targets in an effective manner.
In addition to this it has been determined that marketing myopia needs to consider the role of stakeholders in the business. By considering such the firm will be able to achieve its targets in an effective manner (Baker and Saren, 2010). There is greater role of stakeholders such as customers, suppliers and distributors in determining the success of the firm in long run. Further by taking this into prospective the business will be able to deliver the products accordingly and would not fail in the market.
It can be concluded from the study that role of marketing myopia as an advertising strategy is increasing greatly. It takes into account the needs of the customers and company in order to attain success. But it has been inferred that traditional marketing myopia needs to be modified so as to make sure that stakeholders of the business are essential in order to gain success the market.
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