Dissertation Sample On Nutrition & Diet

Sample on Nutrition & Diet for UK Students

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INTRODUCTION

Diet is a sum of food which is consumed by a human being on a regular basis. The diet habits are varying from person to person and the intention behind consuming the food is health as well as weight management. On the other hand, nutrition is a part of food which has prevent the body from diseases (Andrieu, Darmon and Drewnowski, 2006). There are six types of nutritions present in a food: carbohydrates, vitamins, water, fibres, minerals and fat. In a simple word, nutrition is simply eating a diet food and it is important for the growth of body and living a healthy life. The following research has based on diet and nutrition. To understand its importance in human life, a large school for girls between the ages of 8 to 18 year. The aspects that will cover under the present research are factors influencing on food choice and dietary habits, different types of nutrition contents in food and many other things (Braegger and et.al., 2013).

TASK 1

1.1 Factors which strongly influence on food choice and dietary habits

There are various factors which has strongly influenced the food choice and dietary habits of a person. The major influencing elements are socio-economic, culture and psychological factors.

Socio-economic factors: The food choices have varied with social classes which define the nutrition level. The role of socio-economic factor in influencing food choices and dietary habits can be understood by an example. The higher social class group have believed in intake healthier diets such as increase consumption of fruits, meat, wholemeal food, raw vegetables etc (Craig, and Mangels, 2009). The reason behind intake such type of food on regular basis is their high educational level and increase awareness towards the health.

Culture factors: The evidence shows that people beliefs, traditions and values are the major factor which influenced the food choice and dietary habits. For example, when a person visit to a new place then he adopt the new food habits. It has directly made the impact on nutrition status in body and the health of a person (Flint and et.al., 2012). On the other hand, in the other hand, the culture of ready to eat food has increased. Many of the people and specially young generations have consumed more junk and fast food on regular basis. Such types of foods are not comes under nutritional food and affect the health of person in negative way. Along with this, most of the people are like to eat different variety of foods with the intention of taste preferences (Forbes, 2012).

Psychological factors: This factor affect the consumption of food according to the age, use of drugs, health status, body size, sex, level of physical activities etc. This has directly made the impact on selection of food as well as health condition of a people. For example, a person is ill then he will eat less or prefer the simple food. The reason of behind selection of food is the increase use of drugs in illness conditions in the form of medicines. On the other hand, the smoking habit has decreased the intake of high calorie food, sweets and other kinds of food contents (Gibney and et.al., 2013).

nutrition-diet

1.2 Categorizing food according to type and nutritional contents

Table 1: Categorizing food according to type and nutritional contents

Food item

Example of food item

Nutritional contents for daily basis

Protein

Basic requirement of body because it has played an important role in made skins, muscles, organs ans tendons. It has also help in repair tissues (Gropper and Smith, 2012).

Milk

3.4 g per

Carbohydrates

Major energy source for a body. It helps in digest the food. It has also help in prevent from weight gain as well as good for heart.

Banana

31 grams

Fats

Although fat has increased body weight but it has required for growth of body. It has source of energy and repair cell membranes. It has provided the taste and consistency to food items (Halver and Hardy, 2002).

Butter

60-65 grams

Calcium

It has required for the formation of bones and other body functions such as blood clotting and muscle contractions. It keep the heart beat normal and releasing extra hormones quantity from body ( Le Goff, Van Milgen and Noblet, 2002).

Yogurt

110 mg

Vitamin

It has boost the immune system, support development of body and increase the functioning of other body parts.

Carrots

16706 IU (international units) per 100 grams

Iron

It has played an important role in development of red blood cells, convert blood sugar into energy and production of enzymes (Mahan, Escott-Stump and Raymond, 2012).

Beans and peas

100g

Fibres

It has prevent the body from the different kinds of serious diseases such as cancers. It has keep the heart healthy.

Dark green leafy vegetables such as Spinach

0.3 grams

1.4 Assessing key methods to measure nutritional status of chosen examples of food

As per the given case study, there are various kinds of methods to measure nutritional status of different types of food such as milk, butter, green leafy vegetables, beans and peas etc. Some techniques are as follows.

Anthropometric assessment: It is used to identifying a human being nutritional status. In this context, the height and weight of children and infants has measured. The effect of all types of food such as milk, butter, yogurt etc on the growth and development of the body of 8 to 18 years old ages girls. With the help of it, it can be easily measure on individual basis that girls are intake proper nutrition or not on daily manner (Mann, and Truswell, 2012).

Body Mass index: It defines the weight of a person in the against of his hight. As per the give case, for determining the BMI, the weight of the girls have measured in the respect of their height. The result has reflected the fat stores in body.

24 hours recall: In this process, a trained interviewer has asked some questions to recall and define every food and drinking item which has consumed during 24 hours by girls. With the help of this, it can be easy to determine the required average intake for girls i.e. 8 to 18 years old ages (Mehdi and et.al., 2013).

Weighted inventory: It is a most common technique in which a records of all types of drinks and food which has been consumed by a person has maintained. With the use of it, it can be easy to keep the records of average consumption of food of girls which help in future to determine the required nutritional values for further ages (Mitchell, 2012).

National food survey: It is a major food survey in UK which aim is to collect comprehensive cross sectional information about dietary habits as well as nutritional level of people of UK. In the context of 8 to 18 year old ages girls of school, a survey can be conducted. This framework has identified the nutrition intakes which has analysed from dietary records. Along with this, urine and blood sample, physical activity and measurement can be used for analyse nutritional status of girls (Rubatzky and Yamaguchi, 2012).

1.4 Nutritional requirement of groups

Children under the age of 11

Table 2: Nutritional requirement of children under the age of 11

Nutrients

Children Below 11 years

Calories

1600 kcal/d

Fat

25% to 35%

Protein

40 grams/d

Carbohydrates

148 grams/d

Calcium

1290 mg/d

Iron

16 mg/d

Fibre

2.5 grams/d

Sodium

1400 mg/d

Young women aged 15-18

Table 3: Nutritional requirement of young women aged 15-18

Nutrients ( per day)

Women between 15-18 years

Calories

2000-2800 kcal/d

Carbohydrates

225-325 grams/d

Proteins

52 grams/d

Fats

56-78 grams/d

Vitamins

15 micrograms/d

Iron

15 mg/d

Calcium

1300 mg/d

Zinc

8 mg/d

Gardeners who do heavy manual work

Table 4: Nutritional requirement of gardeners who do heavy manual work

Nutrients

Gardeners involved in heavy manual work

Calories

2400 kcal/d

Fat

78 grams/d

Protein

60 grams/d

Carbohydrates

350 grams/d

Calcium

1500 mg/d

Iron

25 mg/d

Fiber

30 grams/d

Sodium

1800 mg/d

TASK 2

2.1 Tabular representation for showing the relationship between diet and health

Relationship of various food commodities with the health and diets of individuals are as follows.

Table 5: Relationship between diet and health

Food Commodities

Relation with health

Principles of healthy eating

Cereals

  • These are tasty and easily consume huge amount of calories which is beneficial for health.
  • Cereals are offered with chocolate coating which bring more taste to children (Underwood, 2012).
  • Excess of sugar in cereal is not good for health.
  • Cereals in breakfast are healthy for individuals.

Milk

  • It works as important medicine for curing from heart diseases, blood pressure, etc
  • Cow milk contain Vitamin D which is good for bones.
  • It maintains the quantity of calcium in body and keeps person healthy.
  • Drinking milk on daily basis leads to supply of proteins in body.
  • Yogurts, peanuts, soybeans can be also added by individuals i their diet with milk (Willett, 2012).

Oats

  • Oats are rich source of fibres which provides numerous benefits to the individuals.
  • It is beneficial in curing many diseases such as diabetes (Andrieu, Darmon and Drewnowski, 2006).
  • People suffering from gluten intolerance should add pure oats to their daily diet.
  • Daily use of oats in breakfasts lowers the risk of colorectal cancer.

Spanish

  • Spanish is good for eyes, regular use of it improves the eyesight of the children.
  • It is rich source of minerals, irons and vitamins
  • Spanish is good for health, dietitians recommend it to add in daily life for good health.

Eggs

  • Eggs are high in proteins, healthy fats and nutrients.
  • High-protein breakfast of eggs leads to reduce cravings and late night snacking in teenage children.
  • By adding eggs to daily diet, individuals can loss their weight.
  • Eggs feels individuals full for 36 hours as compares to the cereals (Flint and et.al., 2012).

Wheat

  • Wheat is world's healthiest food.
  • It reduces the risk of metabolic syndrome.
  • Bread, cakes, muffins etc are sources of wheat.

Bananas

  • These consists good quantities of carbohydrates and potassium (Forbes, 2012).
  • Adding bananas to daily diet leads to increase learning power.

2.2 Short and long term physiological and psychological effects of alcohol on the human body as well as exploration of the effect of alcohol on the hospitality industry

The consumption of alcohol has made psychological and physiological effects of human body. As per the given case, it can be advise to catering manager that he has to serve the alcohol to the customers in a limited boundaries. The short and long term psychological and physiological effects of alcohol are as follows (Gropper and Smith, 2012).

alcohol

Physiological effects of alcohol consumption on body

Drinking too much alcohol has made the serious effect on health of a person. Thus, the physiological effects of alcohol consumption on different body parts are as follows.

Brain: The consumption of alcohol has created a barrier between the body parts and brain which affect the communication between them. The impact of this is it has brought the changes in behaviour as well as mood of the person. It has harder to made the coordination between the brain and other body parts (Halver and Hardy, 2002).

Heart: The increase consumption of alcohol can damage and affect the working of heart. The disease of due to this are stroke, high blood pressure, cardiomyopathy etc. From the research, it has been identified that by consuming the alcohol in a limited manner has prevent the heart of adult from coronary heart disease ( Le Goff, Van Milgen and Noblet, 2002).

Liver: The high consumption of alcohol has affect the liver and increase the chances of different kinds of diseases such as fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, cirrhosis etc.

Psychological effect of alcohol consumption on body

The psychological effect of alcohol consumption of body on a person are as follows.

Effects of alcohol on hospitality industry

The hospitality industry has served the different kinds of beverages and drinks to its customers in which alcohol is one of them. The effects of alcohol on hospitality industry are as follows.

Advantages

Disadvantages

2.3 Accessing the use of diet in the treatment of several medical conditions

The diet treatment has also help in several medical conditions such as diabetes in following manner.

Diabetes is a acute disorder which is due to irregularity of insulin hormone. It has varied the glucose level in the blood of human body. Although it is a chronic diseases and it has not possible to cure it in complete manner (Willett, 2012). But with the help of proper diet plan and treatment, it can be easy to make the control over glucose level in blood. By using diabetes meal plan, the catering manager can select the right food items for those customers who are facing diabetes problems. The meal planning tools can be used such as carb counting, glycemic index etc for selecting the food items. A proper and healthy diet had provided the benefits to the diabetic patients to reduce the complications during taking the treatment. On the other hand, they have to include various food items in the diet such as wholemeal, fruits, grains, vegetables etc (Braegger and et.al., 2013). Therefore, with the help of effective diet treatment, it can be more effective as compare to any kind of medical treatment in several medical conditions.

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TASK 3

3.1 Planning, developing and analyzing healthy palatable meals for given groups

One day meal plan for an elderly, anaemic woman living alone including breakfast, lunch and dinner.

Table 6: Meal plan for elderly and anaemic woman

 

Meal plan

Nutrient

Energy content

Breakfast

In the meal plan elderly and anaemic women needs to intake food with rich iron to reserve their deficiency. Breakfast will include 1 cup of iron-fortified instant oatmeal, 4 table spoon of raisins and 1 cup of orange juice.

This meal plan contains 13 mg iron and will help in generating vitamin C in plenty (Tobias and et.al., 2015).

Meal plan with provide 200 grams calories to improve absorption.

Lunch

Lunch meal planning will comprise, oast beef sandwich on two slices of iron-enriched bread, 1 cup slices of strawberries and carrot, a single container of low fat yogurt.

This meal plan comprises 5 mg of iron.

It will help in increasing the intake of calories by 650 (Ritchie and et.al, 2015).

Dinner

Dinner will comprise roasted chicken and 1 tsp. of margarine, 1 cup of cooked lima beans.

5.6 mg of iron

549 calories will be provided by meal plan of dinner.

A vegetarian lunch menu for a teenager on a low income

Table 7: Lunch meal plan for vegetarian teenager on low income

 

Meal plan

Nutrient content

Energy content

Lunch

Vegetarian teenager needs to be assure about the intake of enough iron, calcium, vitamin D, vitamin B12 and Zinc. Regarding this in lunch meal plan they should include 2-4 whole meal bread sandwich that includes vegetable fillings, 1 container yogurt and 1 bowl salad including slices of carrot, tomatoes and cucumber (Gaba, 2015).

One sandwich contains 6% Vitamin A, 0% vitamin C, 305 calcium and 14% iron and total fat 33%. 1 Cup yogurt will provide 2.82g fat, 45.67g carbs and 9.75g protein. Salad provides 7.11 gram fat, 7.32 carbs and 7.55 gram of protein to teenagers.

287 calories in sandwich, 243 calories in yogurt and

123 calories in salad (Heuer and et.al, 2015).

 

An afternoon tea menu for a children’s birthday party

Table 8: Tea Menu for children's birthday party

Meal plan

Nutrient content

Energy content

Tea: Zinger tea

Sandwich: Cheese grill sandwich, cucumber with cream cheese, etc.

Desert: Apple pie and chocolate mousse, etc.

Tea contains 1.82gm protein, 2.4 grams carbs.

Sandwich includes 9.15gm fat and 17.52 gram protein.

Proposed desert will generate 35.4 gram of carbs, 6.2 grams of fat, and 27.7 gram of protein (DeBruyne, Pinna and Whitney, 2015).

 

80 Kcal

3.2 Modifying existing meals and menus to implement healthy eating principles

As a consultant of nutrition, the following recipes can be suggested from Sri Lanka so as to implement the healthy principles of hospitality sector. Lamprais is one such dish that contains boiled egg, soya, eggplant as well as symbol. These have been infused with spices like cloves and cardamom. It is regarded as a very healthy dish that has a presence of all the nutrients. Further it is baked instead of frying (Walker, 2015). Coconut curry is another such recipe that has been made from red lentils followed by cooking it in coconut milk. It is further tempered with cumin, turmeric, fenugreek and mustard seeds. It is regarded as a rich source of protein and has also got a presence of many other dietary nutrients. Bel fruit juice also known as wood apple is the one that has a potential to provide several health benefits to patients that include easy digestion. Gotu Kola symbol is also a Sri Lanka side dish that can be consumed with any main meal. It has been regarded as a kind of salad that has got a presence of high vitamin doses. It makes use of Gotu kola leaves that has got a potential to give a tangy flavor to the salad (Alliance, 2015).

TASK 4

4.1 Evaluation of the effects of production methods on the nutritional value of food

As per the given scenario catering manager is using different methods of production of food for over 900 people across five different dining rooms. So, evaluation of the effects of these production methods on nutrition value of food are described as under:

Conventional large-scale cooking methods

It is one of the important method for producing food and it is an important way to cook food at faster rate. This method follow a specific process including different stages such as balancing, boiling, stir frying, etc. In this method generally food is cooked in a conventional oven which circulate hot air around the food. Using this method catering manager can cook food at large scale but due to the circulation of hot air on regular basis can overcook the food so, it can decline the value of nutrition. Blanching cannot be properly cooked using this method of food production. Using this method catering manager can maintain the nutrition value only when food contains mix of healthy ingredients. This method cooks food only using the natural heating and without any kind of smoke which helps in retaining natural and original juice of food and that helps in maintaining nutritional value of produced food. This methods helps in making food lighter which is very beneficial for digestion system of children (Markers of nutritional status, nutrition and food, 2008).

Sous vide

It is method of cooking food in vacuum sealed plastic pouches at very low temperature for longer period of time. Overall, this method of cooking include precise control of cooking, water and oxygen and these three elements helps in maintaining nutrition content of food. So, cooked food of Sous vide retains more vitamins and nutrients as compare to other methods of cooking such as steaming and heating, etc. Heating methods reduce the Vitamin B, B2 and C but, in the sous vide helps in retaining all these nutrition in cooked food (The Benefits of Sous Vide Cooking, 2015). Additional fat is also not required for preventing the adhesion of proteins to cooking surfaces during sous vide method. Therefore, it is a wonder method of food production which helps in maintaining high level of nutrition.

Cook-chill

It is also one of the important method for cooking food and in this method food is cooked at a temperature of 70-75 degree Celsius just for 2 minutes. It reduced the total cost for catering manager because it is required low labor. It helps in maintaining nutrition in food products as well as it is also beneficial because it requires low storage capacity for containing food (The cook chill system for food preparation, 2015).

Microwave cooking

It is one of the important method for cooking food using microwave oven. This method helps in cooking food in fast and quick way but it uses waves of energy which reduces large number of nutrition of food. These waves includes similar waves of radio waves. Sometimes these waves are good for retaining nutrition but sometimes these waves can harm the level of nutrition. This method cooks food very quickly in shorter time and little amount of liquid and it helps in keeping vitamins and minerals into food. It is also called one of the most nutritionally sound food preparation methods (DeBruyne, Pinna and Whitney, 2015).

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4.2 Comparing different nutritional principles involved in the given scenario

As per the given scenario involvement of the different principles and importance of nutrition in different types of hospitality operations which are described as under:

Client’s school for girls: School going girls have starting age of the growth and development. As per the nutrition principle they require appropriate balance of nutrition in their meal such as proteins, fats, carbohydrates, fibers, minerals and vitamins, etc. Therefore, meal plan for school girls must include healthy and interesting options for girls by which they can fulfill the required all the dietary requirement of school girls. Hospitality management should not include any kind of soft drinks and instead of these they should include juice4 of vegetables and fruit. It will helps in their growth and development by proper balance of nutritious (Nutrition Guidance for Healthy Children Ages 2 to 11 Years, 2016).

Residential care homes for elderly individuals: In care home elderly individual are required healthy food as per their medical and physical requirements. They should intake high ironic food so, meal plan should focus on the same. Healthy food will helps in satisfying their nutrition requirements. As per the nutrition principle menu plan should include food products which can be easily digest with high or rich nutrition (Tobias and et.al., 2015)

Fast food outlets: In the fast food outlets of the hospitality operations nutrition requirements are generally ignored because they focus on taste and preferences of customers rather than healthy and nutritious food. But, as per the principles of nutrition fast food outlets can maintain the level of nutrition by using appropriate method of cooking instead of using only heating, frying and backing, etc (Heuer and et.al, 2015)

4.3 Analysing materials that provides nutritional information and promotes concepts of healthy eating

There are different methods which can help in promoting the concept of healthy food, nutrition diet and eating habits. These methods include presentation of nutritional information to customers and staff, nutrition education and communicating importance of a good diet to population of different generation. Presentation of nutrition information to customers will help in increasing the awareness of them about the requirement of nutrition for maintaining healthy body and growth and development (Gaba, 2015). Along with this, presentation of nutrition information will also plays important role in increasing information of staff members about the importance of cooking methods and role of these methods in maintaining level of nutrition. Due to this awareness staff member will use appropriate methods of cooking which will help in retaining necessary nutrition in food. Along with this, most of the hospitality management and food and beverage education courses needs to include appropriate education and training program for maintaining nutrition in food. Education system will help in improving the knowledge and exeprinace4 of students for their future career in hospitality sector. Along with this, arrangement of training and development sessions and workshops on nutrition information will also help in increasing the awareness of students about the healthy food and diet. It will help in improving the level of nutrition in food products and services of hospitality sector (Walker, 2015).

CONCLUSION

As per the above analysis and findings diet and nutrition is one of the important part of the health and fitness of every individual. These are directly associated with the health and diet of every person. Research has also concluded that children, teenagers, young girls and elderly people needs to follow different and specific meal plan as per their requirements of nutrition and diet. Further, hospitality management should follow different principles of nutrition at the time of using various method of cooking food for maintaining level of nutrition in food products. There are different methods of promotion of nutrition information and these include presentation of healthy food to customers and staff members and education program for students, etc.

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