Organisation behaviour is concept which helps to understand the behaviour of people within a group to achieve their goals and objectives. It is scientific process which deal with employees reactions. It has direct impact on team as well as individual person. Major purpose of organisation behaviour study is to evaluate worker and also company performance to achieve sustainable growth (Nicholas, Rowlands and Jamali, 2010). Positive work-culture of corporation assists to attract skilled and talented candidates toward company which helps to increase efficiency of firm. The present report is based on organisational behaviour of Glaxo Smith Kline (GSK) which operating health and care sector at worldwide. The study assist develop understanding the relationship of organisational structure and also culture of GSK, leadership style, motivation theories and teamwork of company.
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1.1 Culture and Structure of GSK
The role of culture and structure is crucial to enhance productivity of organisation. Structure is system in which help to determined hierarchy of responsibilities in company. Every enterprise adopt different structure according their suitability to division firm activities among the workers on the basis of their skills and ability to meet goals of corporation. Organisational system provide assistance to arrange position in business firm. There are four different structure which described as below:
1. Hierarchy system: The concept of hierarchy structure to organise employee position in vertical form, in this types of responsibilities arrangement each department above form other and all will report to their head (Salin and Hoel, 2011).
2. Functional system: The concept of functional structure in which the arrangement of workers duties. In this formate of work divide in horizontal way.
3. Geographical system: In this organisational structure in which role and responsibilities are divide among employees on the basis of geographic way.
4. Matrix system: In this work system company used grid way. Major benefit of this organisational structure is different departments employees can perform together to accomplish business goals and objective. It is useful in project management.
GSK adopted the hierarchy system to allot duties and responsibilities to department to department. In this structure each department workers take orders or suggestions from their branch head which assist to remove the confusion about task because responsible manager provide all information to his subordinates about role on the other hand Ultraphram ltd. used geographical organisational structure in which they organise employees area-wise.
Culture: The role of culture is crucial. It help to understand the way of life of an individual personal. There are various factors which included in it such as the religion, belief, race, nationality, language and custom (Okurame, 2012). There are 4 different types of culture that defined by the Charles Handy:
- Power culture: In this type all the authority and power hold by the single person, in business context it top management of organisation whole right of decision-making are centralise them. In modern corporate world it is not useful to perform well.
- Role culture: As the name suggest the role culture indicated that position of worker define their power to lead subordinates to achieve business goals and objectives for sustainable growth of organisation.
- Person culture: In the person culture concept organisation have less importance rather the worker. It is not appropriate in present business era where its necessary to focus company growth instead employees. It leads the conflict between top and lower management (Castro and Martins, 2010).
- Task culture: In this organisational culture team are formed by the same skills people to contribute their potential to enhance corporation productivity to achieve sustainable growth.
GSK adopted task culture in which workers are formed in group who are sharing common interest to meet enterprise goals and objectives, company have 33000 employees all these are organised in group and consider their benefits. Whereas the Ultrapharm ltd., follow power culture where all the business decisions are taken by the top management with minimum interruption of employees.
1.2 Relationship between the organisation’s structure and culture
Organisation structure and culture have direct impact on the company performance. GSK used the hierarchy structure in which all the department are arrange in vertical manner all the work branches is above form the others (Chahal and Mehta, 2010). This system of business function all departmental head get information about their subordinates and report to higher authority. Major benefit of this top management have fully control on company operations they provide order and task information with deadline to branch managers on the other hand organisation have task culture so these two element helps to achieve sustainable growth. Task culture helps to arrange number of employees in team to contribute in enterprise success and hierarchy structure helps to build union or group of people to achieve corporation targets. Culture helps to choose an appropriate work system for example task based environment assist to management of GSK to used hierarchy system of work because same vision employees would work to accomplish goals of company.
1.3 Factors to influence employees behaviour at GSK
There are number of factors that have direct impact on worker behaviour. Employees attitude influenced by the personal, demographic, psychological and environmental.
1. Personal factor impact on employees behaviour: It affects the employee behaviour, it included job security, job responsibility, personal and professional (Salin, 2008). These impact on their actions in both way. Provide protection of job helps to motivate them which assist to motivate workers toward their roles in company, organisation can encourage staff members to perform with high productivity to achieve vision of enterprise. On the other hand family attitude also affect the behaviour of employee if the firm provide time to workers for their family it helps to maintain balance between personal and professional life.
2. Demographic factor impact on employees behaviour: Worker thinking and behaviour are vary on their age, marital status and gender. These affect the employee action at workplace. Difference age create gap between youth and old subordinate. While young personal want less interruption in their task on the other hand aged person are more social they take suggestion with their co-workers as well as communication structure of company also affect by this factors which is unfavourable for organisation (Yang, 2008).
3. Psychological factor impact on employees action: It has close impact on employees behaviour together with their productivity. It included the personality, attitude, perception of individual. Positive thinking of worker helps to develop motivation and coordination in team to give best efforts on the other hand negative psychology of employee create adverse conditions which decrease group efficiency.
4. Environmental factor impact on employees behaviour: organisational environment play crucial role in worker actions, if the company provide equal opportunity, health and safety, fair wages to its employees so they will motivate toward their duties which beneficial to achieve company goals with cost benefit whereas the discrimination, conflict and miscommunication affect the behaviour of workers together with reduce the productivity and market-share of company (Da Veiga and Eloff, 2010).
2.1 Different leadership styles
To enhance the productivity and efficiency GSK can use the number of leadership style to influence the behaviour to employees. It is process in which the leader or director direct to his or her subordinates by their skills to motivate them toward their role and responsibilities within the organisation. There are number of styles to inspire the followers such as the transactional, transformational, situational etc., but these three are more suitable for corporate world:
1. Autocratic leadership: The traditional approach to influence subordinate toward their assigned task to achieve goals and objectives of organisation (Zampetakis, Beldekos and Moustakis, 2009). In this style leader not considered the suggestion of his or her subordinate to take team decision. In the above stated context the GSK workers perform their duties in the absence of leader because they are skilled and experience whereas the Ultrapharm ltd., employees faced difficulty in absenteeism of boss they have less motivate and also think performance can be enhance under guidance of him.
2. Democratic leadership style: In this types of leadership approach the involvement of employees is higher as comparison of autocratic method. Leader take essential suggestion to his subordinate in making business decision-making process to achieve goals of organisation. In present scenario of GSK have skilled employees who ability to take appropriate steps to fulfil the vision of company because manager of organisation allow them to put their opinions to formulate suitable policy and strategies complete business operations whereas the Ulterapharm ltd., can enhance their efficiency by providing essential training to team members as well as leader (Brexendorf and Kernstock, 2007).
3. Laissez-faire Leadership: This model of leadership known as the delegative leadership, in this manager or leader provide freedom to his subordinate to take best decision for the business to meet organisational objectives. GSK manager adopt this style in specific situation to enhance follower skills and motivate them toward their company goals. It helps to increase their moral which is beneficial for corporation on the other hand Ulterapharm ltd., require specific training to improve effectiveness in their leadership approach.
2.2 Support of organisation theories in management at GSK
It is crucial for each business enterprise to perform their commercial task in a planned manner to enhance their productivity and achieve sustainable growth along with competitive advantage. Organisation theory helps to manage corporation function in appropriate manner which is beneficial for the company (Darker and et.al., 2010). These model assist to administration of firm how they can improve their efficiency by using best work structure and leadership style to motivate employees toward their role within enterprise. In the present scenario of GSK organisation using theory to manage work by division of power and authority to capable person such as the leader or manager to enhance their productivity to achieve commercial goals. Along with it company divide the work of number of employees according to their skills. It helps to GSK to create maintenance to between demand and supply of their product in the market. Each department adopted management theories to contribute their effort to growth of business. Every branch's head report to higher authority about work progress which assist them to develop suitable strategies to take away negative factors to attain expected growth.
2.3 Management approaches at GSK
Management approach assist to organised organisational activities in systematic form to attain sustainable growth of the business along with defeat market competition. It is process in which the manager of company perform number of tasks such as the planning, organising, monitoring and controlling to enhance the productivity of organisation. There are number of approaches of management which are described as per under:
1. Scientific management: The concept of scientific approach help to management of company to deal in managing business activities in systematic way (Dunphy, 2007). This method help to identify the cause of situation and gain new knowledge to integrate with past knowledge to deliver higher satisfaction of work to employee of the organisation. It helps to enhance the efficiency of worker to achieve firm vision. In this scenario these below factors are cause of poor output:
- Job security
- Unfair remuneration
- Inappropriate methods of work
By using the scientific management company can remove these negative factors which affecting the growth of business.
2. Behavioural approach: The behavioural approach is relates with human action. This management style is focus on development of individual for their growth through build number of skills such as the leadership, communication and problem solving etc., these are assist to enhance their productivity through life long learning by the behaviour (Bellou and Andronikidis, 2008).
3. Administrative approach: This method deal to administration task of the company. Work of organisation can easily develop through this approach. Top management delegate the power and authority to capable person to enhance their potential to meet with objective of enterprise.
In the above stated context of GSK adopted the administrative management approach to achieve their goals. The managing department provide roles and responsibilities to department head to perform their task in better manner to captured huge market-share through increase the demand of product (Lee, Broderick and Chamberlain, 2007). The benefit of this approach is employee only liable to answer his or her branch head for example marketing executives report to his manager about their duties. Whereas the Ultrapharm used the behavioural management approach to operate business activities. They targeted on employee learning by their behaviour. Training and development assist to increase workers productivity and efficiency which is beneficial for the company to meet objectives.
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3.1 Impact of different leaderships styles on motivation of GSK
Leadership plays vital role to achieve long and short term objectives of company. It has direct impact on each size of organisation whether is large or small. It is way to influence subordinates toward their role within company. The style of leadership affect each level management of the firm. The impact of different leadership on motivation of GSK:
As the name suggest in this all the power and authorities is centralised to single person or the owner of the company. In present scenario of GSK adopted this style of leadership which indicate the difference between the follower and leader (Yang, 2008). Major benefit of this approach is quick decision making and lack of misunderstanding among employee regarding their duties in organisation. Manager and leader not consider the employee involvement in making planning of business along with development of number of strategies such as the marketing, selling and distribution of goods or service of organisation.
Impact of this style:
This leadership approaches has direct impact on employees motivation to perform their tasks within company. The negative aspect of this style is poor communication system which create the possibility of conflict between lower and higher level of management that affect the moral as well as the growth of firm. Lack of communication lead misunderstanding among worker so work-culture become unfavourable for them (Sun, 2009). This leadership style as pluralistic affect quick decision-making is beneficial for the employer on the other hand demotivation of employee is adverse impact of it.
3.2 Different motivational theories at GSK
In present business era motivation play vital role to get success in market. Without motivated workers company suffers to perform their functions to achieve growth. There are number theories and model which can be used to encourage workers toward their duties in the organisation. These method helps to understand the need of employee as well as how company satisfy their demand regarding their job. Few motivational theories described as per under:
Maslow Theory: The widely used the model of employee encouragement was developed by Abraham Maslow in 20th century, it show the need of human in pyramid structure which follow these components:
Psychological need: It is initial stage of men, it includes food, clothes and roof. In this phase of need of human being is restricted the above mentioned elements. In GSK context it is relate with recruitment and selection training and development program to appointed candidates at organisation (Henkel and et.al., 2007).
Security need: After the psychological need fulfil the nest stage is protection. In the scenario of GSK its relate with job security, work-culture at there.
Social need: At GSK it is relate with teamwork. Appropriate of group formulation help to motivate them toward their tasks.
Self esteem: It is relate with challenging is role and responsibilities within organisation.
Self-actualisation: The last stage of need theory is self-actualisation in GSK context it is relate with the enhancement in job profile to motivate workers for example appoint as supervisor to review achievement of others (Aswathappa and Reddy, 2009).
Mcgregor's Theory X and Y: The theory is useful in management and motivation to employee toward their role and responsibilities to achieve organisational goals to enhance the productivity of the company. This model helps to develop effective management style for organisational development along with positive work-culture within company. Theory X referred the autocratic style of leadership on the other hand Y reflect the democratic approach of leadership.
3.3 Usefulness of motivation theory:
Manager of GSK using different theories to motivate employee to perform their duties with high productivity to achieve objectives of company. Managing of human resource is major role of business officer to motivate them to complete assigned task within given time with effective manner. Manager of organisation can use different theories according the situation arise at workplace to encourage employees (Khan, 2007). They above mentioned Mcgregor's Theory X and Y can be applied by the leader to motivate workers:
- X theory is implement on those worker who not showing interest about their task even they potential and skilled to complete the particular. Manager identified and punish them for their casual attitude for duty.
- Theory Y is implement on those worker who show interest for their duty but personal issue affect his or her activities. It is beneficial for employee as well as employer.
Equity theory is used time to time to provide reward the employee for their achievement along with provide challenges to enhance the potential of worker which is profitable for the company growth along with personal development of individuals.
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4.1 The nature of group and group behaviour at GSK
The role of group is crucial to achieve sustainable growth of the business. It can be defined as the number of people who come together to fulfil the common interest of the organisation as well as own development (Nutbeam, Harris and Wise, 2010). In the success of team is essential to each members give their best efforts to accomplish predetermined goals and objectives of company.
Group can be classified into formal and informal way:
Formal group: These group are established in formal structure in this each members have their specific role in team. All teammates must followed rules and regulation while they perform their duties to meet company objectives.
Informal group: These groups are created without follow formal structure to achieve common objective of individual as well as organisation.
GSK generally used formal group structure to fulfil company mission where the each member have certain role and responsibilities which have to complete them (Tharenou, Donohue and Cooper, 2007).
4.2 Factor to develop effective teamwork
Teamwork is essential to increase the productivity of firm to attainment predetermined goals and objectives with high efficiency. There are following factors that assist to increase the effectiveness of team, the below elements described as per under:
1. Diversity: At GSK there are various team which contributing in achieving the long and short term target of company. Each group are differ according the culture and value. Unique attitude and personality persons provide specific idea of innovation to develop positive environment of team. Diversity of help to deal with different mindset person to satisfy their need and demand. Through this factor team effectiveness can be achieve (Chahal and Mehta, 2010).
2. Communication: It is most important element to increase the productivity of team. Communication is process in which members can share their opinions, view and thoughts to develop positive relationship with other to enhance the effectiveness. Better structure of information exchange assist to achieve long and short term targets with high productivity which is beneficial organisation as well as individuals development.
3. Leadership: leadership play vital role to enhance the productivity of union. Positive skills of leader helps to maintain balance of work through proper allotment of task to each member of team. Interpersonal ability helps to solve the conflict of teammates and develop positive environment. Motivate attitude of commander can guide his follower toward assigned task which helps to them easily accomplish mission (Castro and Martins, 2010).
4. Size of team: It is also important factor to enhance the team effectiveness. It is crucial to determined appropriate size of group. If the members is more so they face difficulty to performing role and responsibilities to achieve goals of team on the other hand less teammates so the power of team would be restricted.
These above mentioned factors help to increase the effectiveness of team to achieve goals and objectives with high productivity.
4.3 Impact of technology teamwork
In present era the technology is changing on time to time. It has direct impact on each aspect of team. GSK is using advance tools to perform number of activities of organisation. They applied new method and machinery to increase their sales revenue and manage the balance of demand of enterprise's product (Salin, 2008). Advancement of equipment assists to provide convenience to customers through betterment in selling and distribute of company goods. Organisation using latest technology to promote the product of organisation. Team work is direct affected by the change in techniques it increase the efficiency of team by improving the communication system which is beneficial to create better understanding among team members, there are various sources to exchange the message through email which is cost effective and faster to develop positive relationship among teammates.
The above analysis has been concluded that organisational behaviour is crucial to sustainable growth of the business firm. The studied provides necessary to information about the different leadership styles of GSK can use to motivate employees toward their role and responsibilities to accomplish goals and objectives. Furthermore evaluation concluded that various management style as well as number of theories and model to motivate workers to enhance the productivity along with this analysis of team work and impact of technology on it.
Books and Journals
- Aswathappa, K. and Reddy, G.S., 2009. Organisational behaviour (Vol. 20). Himalaya Publishing House.
- Bellou, V. and Andronikidis, A., 2008. The impact of internal service quality on customer service behaviour: Evidence from the banking sector. International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management.
- Brexendorf, T.O. and Kernstock, J., 2007. Corporate behaviour vs brand behaviour: Towards an integrated view?. Journal of Brand Management.
- Castro, M.L. and Martins, N., 2010. The relationship between organisational climate and employee satisfaction in a South African information and technology organization. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology.
- Chahal, H. and Mehta, S., 2010. Antecedents and consequences of organisational citizenship behaviour (OCB): A conceptual framework in reference to health care sector. Journal of Services Research.
- Da Veiga, A. and Eloff, J.H., 2010. A framework and assessment instrument for information security culture. Computers & Security.
- Organisational Behaviour. 2016. [Online]. Available through; <http://www.lse.ac.uk/study/summerSchools/summerSchool/courses/Business%20and%20Management/MG130.aspx>.
- Organisational behaviour. 2017. [Online]. Available through; <http://www.investopedia.com/terms/o/organizational-behavior.asp>.
- Organisational Behaviour. 2017. [Online]. Available through; <https://www.london.edu/faculty-and-research/subject-areas/organisational-behaviour>.