Public Health Dissertation Sample

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Introduction To Public Health

Public health is one of the most important aspects that authorities have to pay a lot of attention to, as they are related with progress and development of the community. If proper steps are not taken so as to maintain public health and safeguard people against various kinds of diseases, then it can lead to catastrophic results. In the present study, different approaches and strategies to monitor as well as control diseases has been discussed. In addition to this, the report also sheds light on impact of different illnesses on the community.

Roles played by WHO, Department of Health

Through this essay there is going to be an explanation of the similar agencies that almost play the same part of recognizing the well-being and transmissions within the communities. There are a number of organizations that are known for its concern of health issues from agencies such as W.H.O (World Health Association), Public Health England and Local Authorities.

The Word Health Association was established to have an overall view on common health problems that affect the global population. The organization was initiated on the 7th April 1948 and the location was founded in Switzerland.

The constitution of the World Health Organization had been signed by 61 countries on 22 July 1946, with the first meeting of the World Health Assembly finishing on 24 July 1948. It incorporated the Office International d'Hygiène Publique and the League of Nations Health Organization. (World Health Organization, 2015)

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From when the organisation had launched, it had played a major part to the suppression of variola which is commonly known as smallpox. Its present significance incorporates infectious diseases, for instance, HIV/Aids, Ebola, malaria and tuberculosis; the reduction of the effects of non-transmissible diseases; sexual health, growth; nutrition, food security and fine eating and many more. W.H.O manages the World Health Report, and primes in the international publication in health, the worldwide World Health Survey also World Health Day and this occurs on the 7th annually.

From 2012-2013 the World Health Organisation pinpointed 13 areas in which endowment was issued. Two out of the thirteen areas associated to communicable diseases. The first was to decrease the “health, social and economic burden” of transmitted diseases in general; the second was to battle HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis. Within HIV/AIDS, the Health Organisation works under the UNAIDS network and contemplates its importance that it toils in layout with UNAIDS and plan of action. It also endeavours to demand sections of the community rather than to assist in dealing with financial and communal effects on the disease.

In line with UNAIDS, WHO has set itself the interim task between 2009 and 2015 of reducing the number of those aged 15–24 years who are infected by 50%; reducing new HIV infections in children by 90%; and reducing HIV-related deaths by 25%. (World Health Organization, 2015)

Public Health England (PHE) was set up on April 1st 2013 to conduct jointly public health experts from 70 firms, as well as the former Health Protection Agency, into a sole public health service. PHE operates with the federal and regional government, production and the NHS, to safeguard and upgrade the nation’s health and hold up healthier choices. PHE labels imbalances by aiming and withdrawing hurdles to good health.

PHE is accountable for having uplifting discussions in order to engage with the public and make them healthier, persuading the government and assisting action made by the local government, with the NHS and the rest of the organisations. Favouring citizens so they can shield and enhance their own health and Safeguarding the state’s health through the domain health protection service and arranging for public health emergencies .Sharing facts and proficiency with regional authorities, industries, and the NHS as this will aid to rebuild the public’s health. Investigating, gathering and examining data to refine interpretation of health and enlarge results to the public to do with health problems also announcing on upgrades in the public’s health so everybody can grasp the challenge and the following steps. Lastly it is accountable for assisting the communal authorities and the NHS to gradually grow the public’s health system and its expert workforce.

In year 2013 and 2014, Public Health England precedence will be helping the community live a long-lasting lifestyle, in order to live better lifestyles things that can be prevented are death and the load of ill health correlated for example smoking, high blood pressure, obesity, deficient diet, bad mental health, inadequate exercise, and alcohol. Another will be decreasing the percentage of disease and disability in life by pointing on the prevention and retrieval from the highly observed conditions, which includes dementia, anxiety, depression, and drug reliance also saving the country from contagious diseases and natural hazards, as well as the arising problem of infections that combat treatment with antibiotics. Contributing to families to supply children and young people a great begin to life, operating along with health visiting, school nursing, family nurse partnerships, and lastly the Troubled Families programme. Lastly the precedence will be upstanding health within the work place by motivating employers to brace their staff, and for those working into and out of the work force into the guide of a healthier lifestyle and encouraging the capacity and volume to supply professional, scientific and delivery knowledge to PHE partners.

PHE has 5,500 employees, but the most employed as scientists, researchers and public health professionals. Public Health England utilizes from 15 different local centres and 4 regions (north of England Midlands and east of England, south of England and London). PHE runs thoroughly with the health professionals in Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland, and globally.

Health and safety law enactment in Great Britain is imposed HSE or one of over 380 local authorities relying on the foremost activity which is being taken out at any particular premises. Overall Local Authorities are the principal imposing authority for retail sales, wholesale distributions, warehousing, hotel and catering establishments, offices, and the consumer or leisure industries.

Every Local Authority is an administered authority in its own way and should build appropriate distribution for implementation. The LA National Enforcement Code (link) was initiated May 2013 and places out the concepts that every Local Authority must proceed to guarantee a stable, proportional and well-targeted viewpoint to based adjustments of risks.

Local Authorities’ have a numerous amount of interceding perspectives to balance businesses in the management of health and safety risks. This covers the purvey recommendations and direction to every lone businesses or groups, proactive interventions including inspection and reactive intercession for specimen to investigate an accident or complaint.

LA examiners may want to utilize enforcement powers formal enforcement notices, to mark vocational health and safety risks and also fasten compliances with the law. Prosecution actions will be suitable to grasp duty holders for account to catastrophes to protect health and safety.

All-inclusive the health agencies identified for health and safety are all in the same and reasonable band of aid to us humans. Without them we will not better ourselves by searching for help when it is rightly needed. They are the ones that offer factual information on what has been researched from scientists to the population so that we gain the idea and don’t acknowledge it because this will be prior to us for the present and future generations.

ICF is the WHO framework for measuring health and disability at both individual and population levels. ICF was officially endorsed by all 191 WHO Member States in the Fifty-fourth World Health Assembly on 22 May 2001(resolution WHA 54.21) as the international standard to describe and measure health and disability. (Organisation, 2015)

International Classification of Functioning has signified a wider and present perspective of ideas with health along with the understanding that someone has the possibility of going through some sort of health issue across a conversion in their health and/or surroundings.

ICF has the operation of running level of evaluation, positioning objectives and therapy preparations and observing, and result calculations. This is already ongoing within different ranges of clinical settings in other parts of the world. Within the international level the World Health Organisation consider the usage in international Classification of Functioning this is because to estimate health results and manage disability in contagious ill health.

The National Child Measurement Programme (NCMP) measures the weight and height of children in reception class (aged 4 to 5 years) and year 6 (aged 10 to 11 years) to assess overweight children and obese levels within primary schools. This data can be used at a national level to support local public health initiatives and inform the local planning and delivery of services for children. (Centre, 2013)

The National Child Measurement Programme had been put up within the same region as the authority’s plan of action to handle obesity. Public Health England is going to supply managing instructions to the communal officials and schools to describe the ways of venturing the process.

To encounter the evolving necessities, to reach the end-result the community grew to besides the NHS and health and social care facilities has to be supplied divergently. There may be substantial tasks to tame; Clinical Commissioning Groups have been distinctively being out to conduct the changing of amenities in regional health economies.

The things that CCGs do to conquer other problems and conduct the distribution of alteration for the communal health economies and boost the efficacy of appointing expense and being truthful and courageous of proceeding the greatest efficient departmental structures, appealing the CCG associateship to grasp the proficiency and strengthen assistance.

Successful guidance and collective functioning within a local level the Clinical Commissioning Group is at enthusiasm of distributing the transfiguration modification which is compelling with continuity of the National Health Service.

Epidemiology of HIV

Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection (more knowingly HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a form of a disease span of the human immune system which was led by infection with HIV. When the infection elongates, it obstructs further and more of the immune system, this makes the well-being of the person well more receptive to known infections such as tuberculosis, egotistic infections and tumours that are not always affecting those who have approved immune systems. The overdue symptoms of the infection are introduced to as AIDS. At this stage it is merely complicated to an infection the lung that is known to pneumocystis pneumonia, serious weight loss, a sort of cancer called Kaposi’s sarcoma and/or other infection specified to AIDS.

Genetic research indicates that HIV originated in west-central Africa during the late nineteenth or early twentieth century. AIDS was first recognized by the United States Centre’s for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in 1981 and its cause—HIV infection—was identified in the early part of the decade. Since its discovery, AIDS has caused an estimated 36 million deaths worldwide (as of 2012).As of 2012, approximately 35.3 million people are living with HIV globally. (organisation, 2013) (Sharp PM, September 2011)

At the University of Oxford, and Leuven, endeavoured to rebuild the ancestry of where HIV had firstly began transmitting and discovered of where exactly it had appeared. The studies of last year stipulated HIV and AIDS had been derived in Central Africa; the Democratic Republic of Congo was resulted because of the communal situations and workers being relocated.

The Democratic Republic of Congo (DR Congo) was one of the first African countries to recognize HIV, registering cases of HIV among hospital patients as early as 1983. At the end of 2001, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) estimated that 1.3 million Congolese (adult and children) were living with HIV/AIDS, yielding an overall HIV prevalence of 4.9%. Beyond the 5% mark, the country’s epidemic will be considered “high level,” or firmly established within the general population. By the end of 2003, UNAIDS estimated that 1.1 million people were living with HIV/AIDS, for an overall adult HIV prevalence of 4.2%. (USAID, November 2004)

As maintained by UNAIDS an number of factors had been stated that a high number of widespread of HIV are in Congo, addition to the of great mass of soldiers and refugees, there is lack and shortage of blood transfusions in rustic areas, and also counselling are on the reasons of the growth the virus. There is not really HIV clinics for testing as such, greater numbers of unaltered sexually transmitted infections (STI’S) surrounded by those willing to work for sex and those of patients, and decreased disposal of condoms are located outside of the capital city which is Kinshasa and with maybe one or two of the rural areas.

The number of Congolese women living with HIV/AIDS is growing. UNAIDS estimates indicate that, at the end of 2001, more than 60% (670,000) of 1.1 million adults aged 15–49 currently living with HIV/AIDS were women. Infection rates among pregnant women tested in 1999 in major urban areas ranged from 2.7 to 5.4%. Outside the major urban areas, 8.5% of pregnant women tested in 1999 were HIV-positive. (USAID, November 2004)

In the meantime, the Democratic Republic of Congo’s government has already revealed it’s expand of interest of HIV/AIDS checks and also moral the status of its services provided but it absences the important framework and funds. Consequently, HIV and AIDS happenings recommenced, this only for a fixed duration.

Congo’s government have preferred the right of discouraging the care and supporting activities and events that may turn to help from spreading. To take on this newly recommended strategy the government in Congo requested some involvement from all the organisations and partners participated.

Effectiveness of different approaches and strategies to control incidences of any infectious and non-infectious diseases

To achieve this essay I am going to assess the effectiveness of contrasting approaches and strategies to direct the incidence of disease in communities.

There is a soaring possibility of oral infections in the view of the fact that there is a substandard condition of nourishment; lower rating of teaching in the means of schooling; needs of tradition and religious faith within the hold up of oral health.

Parts of where has insufficient submission to dental help like fluorides would hint that there is a better chance of causing further dental corrosion, plus positions accompanied by dismal entry to sheltered water or even hygienic centres come to pass to atmospheric components to oral health and to common health.

Besides, the lead of oral transmissions is dependent on convenience and also receptiveness of oral health procedures but cutbacks of a certain extent of risks to illness are based on openness of oral health centres even so depletion is as most certain if servicing is designed as to approach prime health protection and discouragement. Totalling also the elements of social gatherings, the imitation highlights the part of conciliate, amend jeopardised actions for illustration to oral purity perfections by following on practices, expending sugar, usage of tobacco and immoderate alcohol volume. Some bearings will not only influence oral health ranking with a denial as revealed by rational course of action yet too collide on forms of living.

The threat of non-communicable diseases and the need to provide urgent and effective public health responses led to the formulation of a global strategy for prevention and control of these diseases, endorsed in 2000 by the Fifty-third World Health Assembly. (Wold Health Organisation, 2015)

Clinical and public health research has shown that a number of individual, professional and community preventive measures are effective in preventing most oral diseases. However, optimal intervention in relation to oral disease is not universally available or affordable because of escalating costs and limited resources. This, together with insufficient emphasis on primary prevention of oral diseases, poses a considerable challenge for many countries, particularly the developing countries and countries with economies and health systems in transition. (Wold Health Organisation, 2015)

Nearly all the proof of evidence links to dental corrosion hampering and guide of periodontal problems. Commended individual oral cleanliness can be averted from Gingivitis, as well as brushing, flossing is also essential this is valued to the influence of proceedings of periodontal abrasions. The incorporation of fluorides communal water furnishes to lessen occurrence of decaying, this satisfies every local distributed by virtue of shared water stores none the less of civil or monetary standing.

Fluoridation programmes of just salt and milk have been manifested to own alike results of when it has made use in community deterrent sessions. Executed and sole deeds, inclusive of mouthwashes, toothpastes and gels along with the claim of adhesives of dental usage are supplementary methods of averting dental cavities. The total of evolving countries have been inaugurated to economical fluoridated toothpaste, it has stated to have revealed to portray a costly plan, guaranteeing the community are revealed congruously to the fluorides set.

Anyone can receive the handling of themselves and for also the ones under the care of their own; this is to put a stop to any illnesses and to continue with the good health. Efficient dieting and with the recommended nutrients ,first hand hindrance of a great deal of dental, oral and illnesses associating the cranium and the face may be attained. Manners of living that influences common health like as tobacco, intemperate alcohol use and necessitous food regime options can strike on to craniofacial and oral conditions. The different thoughts of acting are analogous with intensified craniofacial risks which will fault during birth, will weaken oral health and symptoms of pharyngeal cancer may slowly perform, and same goes to oral candidiasis and other oral conditions.

Chances have existence to enlarge oral disease restraining and health advertising expertise across the community via communal events and health centres. Contributors that assist with the well-being of oral care can image in marketing efficient living styles this can be done by assimilating tobacco and nicotine help and aiding to the occurring patients.

Although, there are keen oral health discrepancies along the sectors and states, it may correlate to economy positioning with both ethnicity and other universal issues. Even though general dental illnesses have significant ways of avoiding harm to the teeth’s, there is not much of it being spoken out to for those that do not know as a resolve from displayed operations.

One of the crucial things for the days to come can be to interpret understanding and involvement with fending off diseases in services. Communal, financial and ethnic components and conversion of the inhabitant’s statistical data collision the carriage with oral services in nations and civics and the way the public look after themselves. Lowering inequalities prescribes outstretched and proceeds towards that single out the farthest danger of certain oral transmissions and elaborates enhancing entry to authentic support. For now, within various nations the major task is supplying key oral health care in surroundings of prime health services. Other services would encounter simple health mandatories for the residents, build up industrious extend to the public, arrange first hand support, and secure productive individual transfer.

Enacting oral disease stoppage services worldwide, prevailing co-operations should be nourished, principally within governmental and intercontinental institutions and the World Health Organisation Collaborating Centres on Oral Health. The World Health Organisations local headquarters render a predominant responsibility within the achievement procedure. W.H.O is going to merge, in partnership of the global oral health area, universal associations of a perspective of distributing accountabilities for the enforcement to the worldwide scheme. The leading duty for the World Health Organisation is to locate the differentiating figures for oral health diseases and also examine the factors, and specific remark about poverty stricken and pitfall societies. The firm operates for oral wellbeing is also basing on conceiving apparatus for the intersectorial alliance, local involvement and progress of the local-found procedures for the restraining if oral disease.

Different health strategies include different proceedings such as the general strategies, health education, preventative health screenings and many alternatives that may include as strategy. Within health education, individuals or even professionals engage with schools and discuss about their knowledge of health. For instance sex education is one of the most popular teachings to the younger generation. It is important that it is stretched out to teenagers so they have a wider knowledge of what is accountable of preventable diseases and other ways of maintaining themselves of getting ill health as a result is an advantage.

Current priorities and approaches to provision of services for people with HIV and Diabetes

There is a varied set of priorities as well as approaches that can be provided to the people who are suffering from HIV. These are as follows.

Prevention: This can be regarded as a first priority that is required to bring HIV under control. In this regard, the approach to be take for the same is in form of education as well as awareness of people. People should be made aware about how the disease spreads from one to other person (Burgess, Shaw and Kellas, 2011). They can further be educated about making use of processes such as condoms etc to prevent the spread of disease. HIV also spreads through infected needles. Hence, it is the duty of health care professionals is to ensure that needles are disposed off after one use so as to prevent its spread (Dana, 2012). Proper screening of risk groups is also a best measure so as to prevent the spread of this disease. Constant screening can be carried out for drug users, blood donors, prisoners, low income people etc. This is required as these groups show an increased chances of spreading the disease unknowingly (Edejer, 2010). There is further a need to bring an overall reduction in diagnosed infection that can be attained by increasing the testing coverage, introducing as well as consolidating HIV teasing in medical services followed by taking steps towards community testing. Self sampling can also be means to diagnose the presence of HIV.

Treatment: The second priority after prevention is of treatment. Here, the health care service providers are required to make sure that HIV infected patients are treated properly. Government should carry out constant screening as well as monitoring of vulnerable groups so as to make sure that the treatment gets started with them on the right time (Farnsworth, 2012).

Palliative care: With the help of this, care can be provided to those patients who are at the end stage of there life after being affected with HIV. This approach is quite effective for those patients who have got a very low chance of survival (Feldman, 2012). This can be inclusive of providing spiritual, social and emotional support.

Furthermore, daily reports can also be used by authorities at a care home so that they can provide much effective services to the care users and try to cure disease that they may be suffering from. Through such an approach, relevant authorities would get detailed information about the patients and also determine their treatment so that their health related problem can be solved much easily and effectively. Reviewing daily reports will enable health care professionals to enhance their overall working and the way they treat patients suffering from diseases such as Ebola or HIV. Burden of disease, basically is a measure which is used to evaluate and compare impact that different illnesses and injuries have on the population. It quantifies loss of life because of the disease and injuries after treatment, rehabilitation or the prevention efforts made by health care bodies.

Relationship between prevalence of HIV and requirements of health services

Prevalence, is a concept which is related to trends that may be existing in the community. In medical terms, it can be termed as any disease or illness or treatment that may be used very commonly. Planning is a very important to be able to treat diseases such as HIV in an efficient and effective manner, largely because of reason that better the planning, more would be chances for curing the illness. Planning has a direct association with that of facilities provided by authorities to cure the disease and to care users. If effective plans are not developed, then proper facilities cannot be delivered to the patients. In addition to this, planning is also related with that of expertise. It is a crucial aspect, largely because of reason that it allows bodies to function properly and also provide the best care as well as treatment to patients. Different health care bodies have to work in complete unison by forming a partnership amongst them, so that they all can provide better care to the users. Furthermore, health education can also be provided to users and the general public. Herein, health care authorities can attempt to educate young people in the region about HIV, it causes and how to safeguard oneself against it. This way the disease can be controlled to a great extent. Clinical services such as screening, treatment, Palliative care can also be used to effectively meet requirements of care users. Herein, the authorities would have to conduct a thorough screening of the patients when they visit a hospital. This will help in identifying their exact health related needs and cure them.

There is a huge relationship between prevalence of HIV disease as well as the requirements towards health services. This is as more health services are to be provided in those areas where HIV has got a maximum chance of occurrence. For example, there is a severity of HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa (Raymond, 2008). It has been found that more than 60 percent of the people have been found to reside with HIV in this region. South Africa has got the largest number of HIV patients. This is followed by Nigeria and India. In the same way, there is a difference in prevalence of HIV disease all over UK. For example, in the year 2012, there were around 5,846 new HIV cases in England, 287, 125 and 95 in Scotland, Wales and North Ireland respectively. In this respect, London has been regarded as an epicenter of HIV and AIDS thereby accounting for around half of HIV in UK. the prevalence to service provision, there seems to be a good distribution of HIV related services all over the nation. It has been found that more than 80 percent of the HIV infected cases have been found to live in the area of 5 kilometers of HIV service (HIV & AIDS in the UK, 2012).

This clear shows that the requirements of HIV treatment and prevention measures is more in these nations. Hence steps should be taken as per the preventable of disease. Services of health care providers will be required so as to cater with the increasing number of HIV patients. There may be a need to recruit more number of health care professional so as to support the HIV infected people (Nolan, 2007). There may further be a need to ensure towards assigning of more nurses as well as diagnostic clinics in order to assess the disease as well as the stage in which it is present. Other requirements may be to provide information about HIV as well as medicines so as to bring the disease under control (Simmons, 2011). More steps may be required to taken so as to provide are as well as treat the people who being to low income group. Device provision may be include of organizing camps in rural and remote areas so that people can be made aware about disease followed by undertaking of effective treatment regimes.

Analysis of the impact of lifestyle choices on future needs for health and social care services

Lifestyle choices in form of diet, exercise as well as substance use have an impact on the future needs of health and social care services. Adhering with lifestyle choices such as consumption of unhealthy food leads to many digestive disorder, obesity, diabetes in people. In the same way, consumption of food rich in fats tends to make a person fat. It may further led to bring an increase in the diseases related to heart (Stretch, 2007). As such the health care professional will have to prepared for treating cases related to obesity and diabetes in particular. In the same way, lifestyle choice such as Sedentary living leads to increased blood pressure and heart diseases. As such there is a need to ensure that heath care services are inclusiveness of taking awareness programs towards the same. Similar, people who are consuming alcohol are prone towards liver disease. This suggests the need for opening up counseling centres for the alcohol addicts.

Health and well being priorities for people in health and social care setting

Health and well being, essentially is a very broad term, as it can have meanings in various senses. But in a jist it is related with mental, psychological and/or emotional aspects of an individual. A person who is happy and satisfied with these facets of every day life can be said to be healthy. The term 'health' consists of both physiological and psychological symptoms; while 'well-being' is a much wider term, as it contains aspects such as life satisfaction, happiness, etc. Maintaining health and well being of people living in an area is very important, as there are a variety of concepts and aspects that have to be kept in mind by the healthcare authorities. In this regard, different individuals have different expectations and priorities of a health and social care setting (Boys and Michie, 2007). It can be supported through fact that people such as care users have a priority that their illness be treated at a rapid pace and the issue they are facing is resolved at the earliest. In addition to this, care users want that they be provided a clean and hygienic place while they are receiving treatment for the illness they may be going through. On the other hand, regulatory bodies in the country such as NHS give priority to compliance of certain health care principles and standards by hospitals working in the borough of Hammersmith and Fulham. Organizations such as NHS need to pay attention to ensuring that care homes in the area are following all the rules and regulations laid down by them to the greatest extent possible and also maintain codes of conduct provided by them (Rosenberg, 2013). In addition to this, these bodies are also required to ensuring that health standards, are maintained so that health and hygiene can be maintained in the society.

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Effectiveness of strategies, systems and policies

Governing council at borough of Hammersmith and Fulham has developed and implemented a wide range of policies, systems and procedures through which health and well-being of individuals in the region can be ensured (Frederiksen, Mäenpää and Hokka, 2008). One such step that has been taken by the authorities is to prepare new systems for delivering high quality services to care users. For the same, the council as well as other authorities pay a lot of attention to providing most appropriate training and development sessions to care practitioners. This way, an attempt has been made by the body to safeguard health of locals of the area. In last some years, this approach of delivering high quality care and provisions to care users has proved to be very effective. It can be supported through fact that standards of health and fitness of individuals in the region has improved by great margins (Carnwell, Buchanan and Carnwell, 2009). In addition to this, the council also has been able to increase the number and types of services that they provide to people in the region. This has resulted in improvement in capability of health care institutions in the borough to treat patients and resolve health related issues that they may be facing. In this context, these bodies also have asked for help from regulatory bodies such as NHS to change the way they work and provide health care services to people in the borough. Therefore it may not be wrong to say that strategies, systems and policies that region's council had developed has proved to be very effective and useful for improving health care standards of the borough and safeguarding locals against various kinds of illnesses (McCarthy and Rose, 2010).

Changes that could be made to improve health and well-being of individuals

In last some years, steps taken by the borough council have proved to be very useful in providing highly effective health care services to individuals living in the area. But still there are certain number of changes that must be brought about so as to improve health and well-being of people in the region. One such change or development that must be made to such services is to procure and install latest health care equipment in health care organizations working in the region (Nolan, 2010). It is imperative that highly advanced tools and machinery be used to take better care of individuals in the borough. This way, not only will the care organizations be able to cater to a large audience base, but also ensure that their health related problem is resolved at the earliest and best possible manner. Furthermore, training and development must also be provided to health care practitioners so that they can use these latest equipment efficiently and effectively. This way, optimal care can be delivered to care users; along with resolving their health related issue to the greatest extent possible (Berkman, 2011). Advanced training and development of staff would allow health care institutions in the region to deliver effective care to patients and protect them from different kinds of disease and illnesses. Employees in the health care industry, by using such tools and techniques would be able to deliver optimal services to care users and also ensure that their needs are met to the greatest extent possible.

Evaluation of activity implemented to encourage behaviour change

Governing council of Hammersmith and Fullham borough have taken a wide variety of steps with the help of which they aim to provide the best care to individuals in the region and meet their health care demands to the greatest extent (Rehr and Rosenberg, 2011). One such step taken by relevant authorities in the region is to provide education to people on various kinds of diseases and how they can cure them; along with leading a much better and healthy life. Through such an approach, the authorities make an attempt to provide the best possible care to people living in the borough. Locals are being educated on side effects of smoking on health, sessions of which have proved to be highly successful and effective for improving health care standards of the region. For the same a 'Smoking Cessation Programme' also has been initiated by the government. Governing council herein offers Nicotine Replacement Therapy (NRT) to all smokers in the region (Parfitt, 2013). Through this campaign, authorities attempt to reduce the number of cigarette addicts living in the borough by great margins. This programme has been successful to a great extent, as the number of smokers in the area has reduced drastically. In addition to this, the government also provides counselling services to smokers, with a view to inform them about negative effects of smoking and the way they can quit it. This program has proved to be very effective, as the number of smokers in the country has reduced, indicating that the campaign of Smoking Cessation has proved to be successful to a great extent. But on the other hand, there are certain aspects that the program has rendered ineffective. One of them is that it has diverted the attention of health care authorities from other diseases prevailing in the country, as they are paying too much attention to reducing number of smokers.


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