Wondering about a life that is free of pain, diseases and other negative aspects is a dream of every individual. Public health is a factor that contributes to development of this dream into reality. WHO (World Health Organisation) has stated that public health is the science of providing a safe and healthy environment to individuals with combined efforts of community. Health and social care is largely dependent on public health and active cooperation of societies and communities because this attribute has a greater impact over wellness of the country (Khoury and Evans, 2011). This report aims to provide knowledge about different aspects of public health and with discussions about health and social care provisions in that are active in currently. Moreover, influences of health and well being of people in such settings shall be demonstrated through this report.
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1.1 Role of different agencies
It can be assessed that there are different diseases which are infectious and non infectious spreading within society and affects the health and well being of individual. Thus, in order to overcome such issues there are different local, national and international agencies working so that health and social care among public could be promoted (Hughes, 2012). Following are the different agencies in regard to assess the health and disease within community such as-
World health organization (WHO) : It is one of the significant international agency operating in United Nations and thus provide services in regard to assess the world issues related to health and well being. Its main motive is to promote international public health and thus minimize the impact of disease upon public. WHO promotes health campaign and initiative different actions so that quality services related to medical could be provided to public. Such agency also functions in relation to provide different regulation related to health and social care and thus promote better health services so that success can be attained (Khoury and Evans, 2011).
Public health : It is an agency that works at national level and is carried out by UK government so that welfare of public and individual could be developed within UK. Main purpose of such organization is to protect the public from non-infectious and infectious diseases (Lewis, 2015). For this they need to educate public and provide them appropriate health care provisions so that health of public could be safeguarded.
Clinical commissioning group : It operates at local level within UK and thus helps in safeguarding the local public so that they do not get affected from any infectious and non-infectious disease. Thus, it is essential for such group to promote health and well being so that better quality health care services could be provided to patients (Mehta, Croudace and Davies, 2015).
1.2 Explanation of epidemiology of one infectious and one non-infectious disease
Epidemiology of infectious disease- Tuberculosis (TB) : In England, there were around 5758 cases of TB in the year 2015. Of these, 39 per cent cases were detected in London. 73 per cent of the cases were of those people who were not born in UK. Of these cases, 60 per cent of the people were those who have been residing in UK for more than six years. This indicates the trend of reactivation of latent TB. The non- UK born cases of TB belonged to India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. Though, there has been a decline in the rates of TB among these populations significantly. In UK, TB is strongly associated with health inequality. The rates of TB in people living in deprived communities is 7 times higher as compared to those people who live in less deprived areas. 35 per cent of the cases of TB were those people who were not educated or were unemployed (UK stats and targets, 2017).
Epidemiology of non- infectious disease – Obesity : In Ireland, 62.9 per cent of adults were found to be obese. The prevalence of obesity is similar in men as well women. There has been an increase in the prevalence of obesity in the past 10 years in UK. The proportion of men categorized as obese increased from 13.2 per cent in 1993 to 26.9 per cent in 2015. In England, 31.7 per cent of boys were categorized as obese while 30.7 per cent fell in the same category in the year 2014. In Scotland, 28. 4 per cent of the boys were obese while 34.1 per cent of the girls were found to be obese (UK prevalence, 2017).
1.3 Effectiveness of different approaches and strategies to control incidence of infectious and non-infectious diseases
It is essential for care setting to overcome the infectious and non-infectious diseases within UK. Therefore, they need to undertake effective approaches and strategies regarding controlling the incidence of infectious and non-infectious diseases such as obesity and Tuberculosis (O’Farrell, 2012). Thus, UK government need to undertake effective strategies so that public could be informed regarding such diseases and thus overcome such infections from them. It is as follows-
Education among public : It can be considered as one of the effective strategy through which bad effects of infections and non-infectious diseases could be communicated to public in UK. Thus, governmental agencies are working in relation to promote public health and therefore, they need to take help of public campaign so that awareness among them could be raised regarding diseases such as obesity and Tuberculosis. Through raising awareness it results in promoting the health of public and thus enable them to carry out better life (Paluch and Blair, 2011).
Screening : Further, government bodies are required to carry out effective screening activities so that public could be held upon normal screening in order to detect the health of such people. Therefore, it is essential for them to improve their health conditions by providing them proper knowledge and information regarding different prevailing diseases so that best results can be attained (Hughes, 2012).
Social welfare : There are different social groups running within UK in order to promote health and well being among people and thus it helps in promoting the health conditions so that better living standard could be promoted. With the help of social welfare it is essential for voluntary workers to identify the health conditions of public and thus help them to overcome the Obesity and Tuberculosis disease in order to live healthy life (Lewis, 2015).
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This present report analyses the current priorities and approach in provision of services for people with disease or illness. This report evaluates relationships between prevalence of disease and requirements of services and supports the individuals within health and social care provision (Smith, 2015).
2.1 Current approach and priorities
There are various types of approaches and priorities for providing services to communities.
Disease prevention : It is a division of medication which serves people in curing infectious diseases. It can be defined as the most effective, affordable way to reduce risk of disease. For this, the department of Health has developed a promotional strategy for prevention of disease. It includes building health and safe communities, expanding quality services in clinical and communities’ settings and empowering people to make healthy choices (Aveyard, 2014).
Treatments : It includes different types of therapy, surgery, medical care, and ministrations. It also involves antiretroviral, treatments blends that can spear and recover the value of lifetime for persons active with diseases.
Palliative care : It is that approach which is used by medical care people who are suffering from those disesces which limit their life such as AIDS or con. It focuses on providing relief to people from pain, physical stress and mental stress (Baldwin, 2016). The main aim of such approach is to improve quality of life of the individual. Palliative care is provided by a team of physicians, nurses and occupational therapists and other health professionals.
Remedial care : It mainly focuses on curing learning problems that keep children away from reaching their potential. It includes different types of treatments and cure which prevents children form diseases and make them more capable in their growing age (Bondi, 2016).
2.2 Relationships in between the prevalence of disease and requirements of services.
Prevalence is measurement of all individuals which are affected by the disease at a particular time On the other hand Incidence is a measurement of the numbers of new individuals who contract a disease during a particular time. For promoting better health care services, it is important for determining requirements of support services (Payne, 2015). For promoting better social services, it needs planning which assits to find the root cause of diseases. The planning assist people in identifying the specific issue and also designed programs. Facilities are always depended on need for health care provision. For example, if in certain area it has found that people who are suffering from HIV are increases then they need to adopt particular resource. For preventing diseases it always requires experts which give correct guideline.
As per the social care provision, experts include doctors, nurses and other people who gain experience of handing such issues (Dinnie, 2015). For social care, it also needs different types of organizations which promote better services and assist to social care. For partnerships, it includes different types of organization such as NHS and other government bodies which promote social health (Smith, 2015). For example, in 35% cases of TB people are not educated by merging with these instituation they make people educated towards TB For meeting, they can use various types of sources such as government funds and also use crowd funding for promoting services. Aim of social care is to promote better health services for every individual.
2.3 Impact of current life styles
The current trends of people towards health is not admirable. People and their life styles is not according to their health requirements. Citizens of UK is not getting proper diet suffering from different types of disease which make ill to them (Payne, 2015). In most of obesity case it is found that men and women have similar ratio and it continuous increases. There need a proper guideline of future requirements. The diet of people is not appropriate and not as per require for their health. By increases in consuming of fast food which leads to many diseases in normal people's life. In UK there is also raising numbers smoking. For that awareness campaign need to be introduced.
In present era there is also one factors which have great impacts of humans life is work cultures. The work culture of corporate sectors is very tense. People need to mange their work as per their health requirements (Bondi, 2016.). Human needs relaxations in their life styles so they can maintain better health. In UK's citizens not involves exercises in their daily routine. By doing exercises on daily basis they can make their life more stress free. For that they need to add exercises in its daily routines. The social care is also needed to promote good health choices by adding exercises in its daily routine (Payne, 2015).
From the above report it can conclude that for promoting social health care there are various types of approach and priorities are available such as prevention and treatments which assists for promoting social health care.Form the above report is also concluded that people's choices regrading their diet, life styles also have impact on normal human life.
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3.1 Health and well-being priorities for individuals in a particular health or social care setting
In order to have better and healthy life, it important to make sure that individuals follows different set of tasks so that they can live a healthy life. In this context, below given are few of the ways through which this possible (Bennett, 2010. ):
Safety and security: There are different type of health related issues that are faced by people. It is important to make sure that proper steps are taken so that they will be able perform their roles effectively and efficiently (Blas. and Kurup, 2010). There are cases in which people do not take proper precaution in order to protect themselves when they perform any type of dangerous tasks. In such situation, it affects the health in negative manner.
Diet: On daily basis, it is essential to consume minimum level of diet so that body will be able to develop. In this context, when it is not done, then it affects the development of the body. Further, when proper diet is not taken, then the capability to defend infection gets reduced (Marmot. and Bell, 2012).
Emotional needs: There are basic needs that are expected by people. When the emotional side of individual is positive or not fulfilled, then it affects the healthy negatively (Smith, ed., 2015). This reduces the concentration of focus that one has over the work that is to be performed. This is because the health condition is not in favour to perform the task.
Social needs: For well being, it is important that one get proper appreciation for the tasks or the role that is done by them but it should be done as per the quality and efficiency that is put into it (Glanz. and Bishop, 2010).
3.2 Effectiveness of strategies, systems and policies in a health or social care setting
Within an organization when there are proper strategies, system and policies in relation with health care setting, then there are many benefits that management gets. In this context, below given are the effectiveness:
Involvement: Policies, strategies and system can be determined as guidelines that enables to develop path on with employees can reach other their determined goals (Moorhead, Hazlett. and Hoving, 2013). There are conditions in which people do not get involved in the changes that management wants to implement. However, when there are effective strategies and policies enacted, then it helps to raise the involvement of workers.
Quality of provision: With the help of policies, strategies and system, it enables the firm to make sure that they deliver their customers with high quality services. There are cases in which workers don not understand the part of roles that has to be performed by them (Khoury, and Evans, 2011). However, when there are proper policies or strategies, then employees get to make use of their full efficiency in order to achieve the organizational goals and objectives.
Choices: With these three aspect, management get to make sure that workers get involved in the strategies that are performed by them. In this context, it enables to provide adequate and different set of strategies that can be implemented by the organization. This way it becomes helpful enough to achieve their objectives (Paluch and Blair, 2011).
Partnership: With the help of policies, system and strategies, employees within the organization get to know about the skills and capabilities that others possess. This way the coordination raises and workers get to learn from each other and thus performance level raises.
3.3 Changes that could be made to improve the health and well being of individuals in a health care setting
In order to improve the well being and health of individuals, there are different type of steps that can be followed (Mehta, Croudace. and Davies, 2015). In this context, below given are few of them:
Confidentiality policy : Patient does not prefer to share their issues to every one. With this respect, it important to make sure that the problems of issues that are faced by patient is not conveyed by professional to any other persons. This is helpful enough to make sure that strong relationship is developed.
Complaint procedures : There are different set of issues that are faced by patients. In this context, it is important to make sure that all the complaints that given by patient are being considered and appropriate steps are taken in order to overcome them (Moorhead, Hazlett, and Hoving, 2013). When steps are taken as per the issues that are faced by employees, then it enables to improve the health and well-being of individuals.
Changes in health and safety : There should have proper interaction or communication with patient. This is important as it enables to make sure that they develop trust and confidence over the health related services that are provided by the professionals. When individuals feel safe and trust over the services that are delivered to them, then it helps to make individuals to have better and well being of their life's (Paluch and Blair, 2011 ).
3.4 Behaviour change activity
The benefits of health and social care amongst individuals can only be recognised when they are aware about the side effects of unhealthy lifestyle. For instance, an alcoholic may or may not know the impact this addiction can have on the digestive and immune system of the individual (Glanz, and Bishop, 2010). In such cases, educational activities can be organised by local health and social care organisations. These can be in the form of campaigns or seminars, focus group discussions, street plays, skits and entertainment media. The platform through which maximum awareness regarding health benefits can be spread is education. Right from the childhood, if a person is given effective knowledge and understanding about the ill-effects of drinking and smoking then chances of proclivity towards unhealthy lifestyle decreases.
Educational activity in the form of interactive sessions where people are free to share their thoughts and experiences can be effective and efficient enough in improving the status of health and social care in the community (Moorhead Hazlett. and Hoving, 2013). Behaviour of a person automatically changes when proper education is transferred with a structured channel. Increasing awareness means that people will encourage others who are in the influence of negative lifestyle to adopt healthy standards of living.
Schools, colleges, community centres, social care organisations, etc. are the best platforms that can use educational activities as a medium for encouraging behaviour change. The only thing that is bad about this activity is risk involvement (Paluch and Blair, 2011). If teachers or trainers engaged in health education activities are not skilled enough then negative outcomes can be witnessed. The evaluation technique that can be used for understanding characteristics of this activity is feedbacks from every person who was involved in the activity. It helps in gathering broader insight about the response and improvements required.
From the above report it is concluded that for promoting social health authorities, governments and WHO plays important role. Their active participations in social health promotes better welfare in communities. There are different types of approaches which is used by social health care such as surveillance, screening, immunization which control disease in better way. The current priorities and approach make social health services more advance. Current lifestyles of people is also have great impacts on human's life. By evaluating effectiveness of strategies, systems and polices health care service could be make better.
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