Literature review is the most crucial chapter of an investigation that represents the secondary information that is done in respect with the research topic. This chapter includes the information about finding of other authors on the similar topic. The aim of present investigation is to investigate the relationship between employee motivation and the concept of quality service, written by our dissertation writing experts. This section explains the concept of employees motivation and services quality as well as it defines that role of quality service in hospitality sector. However, the proper information about factors affecting employee motivation in hospitality industry is explained. Literature review section of this investigation defines the link between employee motivation and service quality and the techniques that could help to encourage employee motivation in hospitality industry.
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1.1 The concept of employee motivation
In modern era, the competition among businesses in hotel industry has become so intense that it is not easy to grow and survive. Now a days most of the hotels are focusing on employee motivation in order to make them more productive and gain high degree of customer satisfaction. As per the view of Zhang and Bartol (2010) employee motivation consists of those tools and techniques which are used by organizations to encourage employees in giving their best. In addition to this, it also helps in making the workers more effective and efficient (Zhang and Bartol, 2010). According to Grant (2007) many 5 star hotels are now focusing on the techniques of employee motivation in order to gain competitive advantage over other market players (Grant, 2007). With the increasing number of tourist, the number of hotels has a also increased to a great extent. Further it has become very difficult for organizations to find out the ways using which they can gain advantage over other market players. Now businesses are gaining advantage with the help of employee motivation as two firm can have same financial and technological resources but what make them differs from one another is their human resources. Moynihan and Pandey (2007) has explained that with the help of employee motivation, organizations try to identify what are the factors which encourages workers to give their best (Moynihan and Pandey, 2007). The hotel industry is the one which possess very high rate of employee turnover. Thus, the concept of employee motivation also helps in lowering down the rate of employee turnover. As per the view of Lin (2007) the workers in every hotels are dissatisfied because they are not paid well and their timings are also not appropriate (Lin, 2007). Some times employees are required to work overtime and they are not even paid for the same. The techniques of motivations acts a driving force for workers and boost their morale. Now a days managers have started to provide monetary and non- monetary rewards to people within organization which has helped in developing a sense of satisfaction among them. When employees efforts are being recognized and appreciated in front of every one, then positive energy is developed among them (Van den Broeck and et. al., 2008). This energy forces them to perform outstanding in future which further assist organization to achieve its aim and objectives in more effective manner. Has asserted that employee motivation is also necessary because the employee are the one which have a direct interaction with customers in hotel industry. In addition to this, a highly motivated employee is always able to understand and meet the demand of customers (Schaufeli and Bakker, 2010). This directly helps in getting high degree of customer satisfaction and also encourages customers to repeat purchase.
1.2 Concept of service quality in hospitality industry
The concept of service quality is long been witnessed in the hospitality industry as service is the most crucial part of gaining competitive advantage. The services are provided to the customers before, during and after purchase of product and services. The investigation conducted by Park, Kim and Krishna, (2014) defined the importance of consumer service in hospitality organization. As per the results of investigation 90 percent of hospitality companies are accounted on human side of the business to provide effective services to customers. As a result of study (Customer Service Training Center, 2015) 45% of customers switch a company just because of not providing effective services. The customers are to be given proper attention and they are to be provided the best services, in case hospitality company wants to retain them and recall them. According to the investigation of Halal (2003) the stage of customers delight depends on quality of services provided to the customers. Within hospitality industry, most of the services are provided by employees, hence, the behaviour of employees decide the service quality. As per the concept of service quality, there are four major aspect on which service quality depends such as Politeness, Professionalism, Personalization and Promptness. To the view point of Hartman and Conklin, 2012 Customer service quality enables hospitality business to get wares with the specific needs of customers so as to proved them service accordingly (Hartman and Conklin, 2012). The concept of service quality provides organization, a chace to attain customer's loyalty and satisfaction. Wang and Fesenmaier (2006) argued customer service concept as a way to keep customers happy and gain ongoing business from them. As per the results of study conducted by American Express Global Customer service barometer, “78% of consumers are not willing to have services from employees who have firstly provided poor quality services. The study has further identified that poor customer services resulted to loss of customers. This concept is argued to be the best concept within hospitality organization to flourish and gain attention of customers along with attaining higher profits and revenues.
1.3 Role of service quality in hospitality sector
Service quality determine how well the service of a particular firm has meet and satisfied the demand of customers. As per the view of Akbaba (2006) customer is considered as the king in every industry and all the efforts of businesses are directed towards achievement of high degree of customer satisfaction (Akbaba, 2006). In the present scenario the competition among businesses in hospitality industry has become very tough and it is now a good situation for firms operating in this industry. According to Ladhari (2009) now the organizations are required to ensure that they are offering the best quality of services to customers (Ladhari, 2009). If the service quality is not accurate then the customer do not have to worry because he has a wide variety of alternative available. On the other hand, in order to survive and earn adequate profits, the businesses are required to focus on their services quality. The organizations are required to understand the fact that it is very difficult to attract a new customer as compared to retaining old ones. Further high degree of customer satisfaction and their loyalty are some of the biggest asset for any organization that operates in hospitality industry. HoweverNadiri and Tanova (2010) argued that it is not easy for businesses to maintain and manage appropriate level of quality in their services (Nadir iand Tanova, 2010). The manager are required to take care of various factors in order to deliver accurate and bets quality of services. As per the view of Nadiri and Tanov (2010) service quality plays a very important role in the success of organizations in hospitality industry as it provides them with high degree of customer satisfaction (Nadiri and Tanova, 2010). Other than this, when customers are provided with best quality of services then they are automatically encouraged to become loyal by making repurchase form that particular organization. Briggs, S., Sutherland and Drummond (2007) has explained that businesses can set various parameters and standards in order deliver quality services to their customers (Briggs Sutherland and Drummond, 2007). There are various tools and techniques of managing and maintaining quality which can be employed by firms. Quality services also helps businesses in increasing their sales and profitability by attracting some new customers and retaining the old one. Along with this, it assists in increasing the market share by providing most satisfactory services to people in the market. In accordance with Han, Kim and Hyun (2011) when businesses are able to deliver fast and quality services then are able to increase their brand value and goodwill in the market (Han, Kim and Hyun, 2011). It is the only reason why most of the hotels always seeks for improving their service quality in order to increase their sales and profitability rather than doing marketing and promotion of their services. If the service quality of businesses in hospitality industry is not good then it creates dissatisfaction among mind of customers and it also encourages them to use the services of competitors (Kayaman and Arasli, 2007). Further it is termed as one of the biggest loss to any kind of organization.
1.4 Link between employee motivation and service quality
The concept of employee motivation and services quality aim at increasing the sales and profitability of organization. Liao and et. al., (2009) has explained that employee motivation is directly linked with services quality as motivates employees are always able to deliver best quality of services to customers (Liao and et. al., 2009). A team of highly motivated workers is able identify and satisfy the need and demand of guest in a particular hotel. In addition to this, motivated employees provide their views and suggestion regarding how the quality of services can be improved at its best. As per the view of Salanova, Agutand Peiró, (2005) a motivated workers is able to deal with guests in hotel in more effective manner (Salanova, Agut and Peiró,2005). Further he also initiates reviews and feedback from guest regrading the quality of services provided. On the other hand, in discussion and meeting also these employees participate actively and make sure that the services provided are best in the industry. However Wat and Shaffer (2005) argued that it is not easy for employer to understand what are the factors which motivates and encourage people in the organization to give their best (Wat and Shaffer, 2005). Most of the time workers are motivated when there need and demand gets satisfied. Motivating employees is considered as one of the most difficult task for managers as there are not able to judge wherever financial rewards will motivate employees or non financial rewards. Along with this, businesses are also required to be very careful at the time of rewarding and appreciating efforts of their workers (Combs and et. al., 2006). Even if the organization uses fair practice of rewarding employee then also a sense of dissatisfied can be created in the mind of employee which are not rewarded. Has stated that one of the best way to achieve high degree of employee motivation is by making them engage in the formation of reward systems. Further the workers are the one which have a direct interaction with customers or guest in the hospitality industry. Therefore they understand the need, demand problem and issues of the clients in more effective manner as compared to any other member of organization. In addition to this, a team of highly motivated employee always try to ensure that the best and most satisfactory services are provided to the customers. On the other side of this Nadir and Tanova (2010) has explained that motivates employee also helps in implementing and managing changes in organization which is very essential in order to provide quality services (Nadiri and Tanova, 2010.). Further organization need to change its existing practices and activities in order to improve the overall quality of their services. Humphrey, Nahrgan and Morgeson, (2007) has explained that motivated employees always encourages and initiates changes in organization (Humphrey Nahrgang and Morgeson, 2007). Along with this, they also helps the organization in ensuring the fact that the services provided by them are the best and most effective ones. Both service quality and motivated employees are essential for the growth and success of organization. Further it provides opportunities to expand and enhance the brand image of any businesses. It as been found that high motivation among employee will results in providing the best services to customer.
1.5 Techniques for encouraging employee motivation
Employees motivation is a force to motivate employees for improved performance as well as encouraging them for participation in organizational success. To the view point of Hartman and Conklin (2012) employee motivation is force to gain competitive edge through making employees encouraged for providing the best services. In the corporate scenario there are various theories that are used for motivating employees, however ,a common fact of all such sets is to gain employees satisfaction so that they can work in well improved manner. The investigation conducted by Mayfield and Mayfield (2009) the motivation theories that are based on some factors that are essential to motivate employees in an organization. It has been augured that employee motivation theories are used within hospitality organization to improve service quality and to encourage people for providing the best services. The employee motivation theory used in hospitality organization includes Maslow's need-hierarchy theory, Herzberg's two-factor theory, Vroom's expectancy theory, Adams' equity theory, and Skinner's reinforcement theory. As per the facts of Maslow's need-hierarchy theory, the employees can be motivated by satisfying their needs in a hierarchical format, furthermore Cameron and Pierce (2002). defined that needs of employees are divided into five major levels including physiological, safety, social, self esteem and self-actualizing. Firstly , lower level of needs are to be satisfied before higher level so as to motivate employees.
Herzberg's theory, on the other hand based on the factors that are important to motivate employees such as motivators and hygienes. Motivator are intrinsic factors like as achievement and recognition, job satisfaction that encourage people to work effectively. The hygiene factors known to be extrinsic factors which includes pay and job insecurity.
Vroom's theory based on the fact that the efforts of employees somewhat leads to quality performance and on the basis of performance employees are rewarded. The investigation conducted by Cameron and Pierce (2002) found rewards can be provided in monetary and non-monetary terms. The positive rewards significantly lead to high motivation among employees hence, organizational performance increases.
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On the other hand, Adams' theory stated that employees are to be provided with equal opportunities in the workplace so their moral can be improved. However, it has been witnessed that employees strive for equity among themselves, in an organization. The equal opportunities provided to the employees of hospitality organizations is the best motivation for employees
Skinner's theory is also a most used theory at the workplace that defines a link between behaviours of good performers and its positive outcomes in the form of organizational efficiency. To the view point of Wang and Fesenmaier (2006) this theory also defines behaviour of non performer and their negative outcomes and this is seen to be the best factor which motivates both kinds of employees to work effectively. This theory further facts that managers should positively reinforce employee behaviours so as to improve their performance. According to Omar, Jusoff and Hussin (2010) the high-quality leaders are capable to motivate employees for accomplishing a good job and it has been also witnessed that most of the employees became loyal when they are leaded by superior leaders. However, the importance of leadership in motivating employees is found to be crucial in hospitality organization. Furthermore Chadwallader, Jarvis, Bitner and Ostrom (2010) explained that in order to receive a better response from employees it is good to deliver them choice of autonomy regarding execution of new approach in innovations.
1.6 Factors affecting employee motivation in hospitality industry
The significance of employee motivation is long been witnessed within services industry as most of the service are rendered by the people working in the industry. In this aspect, employees motivation is the major force to survive in rapidly changing workplace. Hossain and Hossain, (2012) the organization depends on performance of motivated employees as it is important to improve organizational performance (Hossain and Hossain, 2012). The performance of employees are influenced by their motivation level as well as it has been witnessed Park, Kim and Krishna (2014) employees are motivated by providing attractive rewards and recognition (Park, Kim and Krishna, 2014). To the view point of Halal (2003) The performance appraisal system also affects the performance of employees, in case the employees are provided with better pay scale and incentives than motivation can be achieved (Halal, 2003). Nonetheless , it has been witnessed that reward system depends upon the size of organization.
The investigation conducted by Hossain and Hossain (2012) found that effective reward and recognition system key of attaining employees motivation, however, inappropriate reward and recognition lead to de-motivation among staff that affects the performance of company. Karatepe and Tekinkus, (2006) there are some factors including work-family conflict and poor job security de-motivated employees. In the investigation Mayfield and Mayfield (2009) it has been found that high level of intrinsic motivation increases job performance as employees work effectively in the organization. The employees can motivate by motivate employees by providing better monetary compensation and good growth opportunities. Motivate employees provides better productivity and they satisfy customer demand in an effective manner. It is because; their goals are aligned with the success of business. Due to this aspect, they provide services from best of their capabilities in order to achieve aims and objectives of the organization. Wang and Fesenmaier (2006) carried out research on employee motivation in the hospitality industry. In accordance with their research, major factors that affect motivation level of employee is training programs, growth opportunities, recognition and monetary and non monetary appraisals.
In the above literature review, findings of various authors on service quality have been analysed so as to understand the concept of service quality as well as employee motivation. In this literature review description is provided regarding conceptual framework of employee motivation and service quality. Furthermore, techniques of employee motivation has been discussed. The limitation of the present literature review is that is focused solely on the hospitality industry.
- Akbaba, A., 2006. Measuring service quality in the hotel industry: A study in a business hotel in Turkey. International Journal of Hospitality Management.
- Briggs, S., Sutherland, J. and Drummond, S., 2007. Are hotels serving quality? An exploratory study of service quality in the Scottish hotel sector.Tourism Management.
- Cadwaller, S., Jarvis, C. B., Bitner, J. M & Ostrom A. L. 2010. “Frontline employee motivation to participate in service innovation implementation”. J. of the Acad.
- Cameron, J. and Pierce, W., 2002. Rewards and intrinsic motivation. Westport, Conn.: Bergin & Garvey.
- Combs, J., Liu, Y., Hall, A. and Ketchen, D., 2006. How much do high‐performance work practices matter? A meta‐analysis of their effects on organizational performance. Personnel Psychology.
- Grant, A.M., 2007. Relational job design and the motivation to make a prosocial difference. Academy of Management Review.
- Halal, W., 2003. E‐commerce forecasts: a return of the dot.com boom. On the Horizon.