Sample on Human Resource Development

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Human Resource Development deals with training and development of employees in organization as it provides an opportunity to learn new skills and techniques which is beneficial for employees to work efficiently in the organization (McGuire, 2014). It includes employee training, employee career development, performance development and management, coaching, mentoring, succession planning and organization development. The focus of human resource development is to develop most efficient workforce which play crucial role in organization success. This hrm dissertation report is based on a case scenario of Marks And Spencer's which is a UK based multinational retail organization and specialized in selling clothing, home products and luxury food products. Thus, in this report training needs and training methods at different level of an organization will be discussed. This dissertation will stress on different types of learning styles and theories.

TASK 1: Different Learning Styles & Models

1.1 Comparison in different learning styles:

Every individual possess different learning style. These styles were developed by Mr. Peter Honey and Mr. Alan Mumford; they identified four different learning preferences, such as: Activist, Theorist, Pragmatists and Reflector (Mankin, 2009). Moreover, a Fleming's model is most commonly used learning style approach and it depicts about three different type of learning styles such as, Visual, Auditory and Kinesthetic. The learning styles can be compared on the basis of attitudes and behaviors of an individual.

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Fleming's VAK Model:

Fleming’s model is one of the most commonly used learning styles. Fleming Provided three categories of learning preferences;

Honey & Mumford:

Honey and Mumford developed their learning style as variation on Fleming's Model. They proposed a similar approach to Fleming's model but in different style, similar to Fleming, Honey and Mumford style is combination of learning stages.

1.2 Role of learning curve:

A learning curve is a graphical presentation of the levels of learning with experience. Experience and learning curve models are developed from basic ground from which individuals and organizations gain knowledge by practically doing work. It is a continuous improvement process which is developed through experience. To bring efficiency and perfections in a task experience learning curve is very important to be followed. By creating experience in performing a task, learning curve helps individuals to focus on developing new skills, knowledge and values to their career (Beardwell and Claydon, 2007). Any organization that is developing new business strategies and new values, its employees will automatically face new challenges in changing atmosphere. Therefore, it is required to adapt to new learning curve to adjust their technical skills and competencies. The employees will be provided with practical experience, performance review, coaching to examine their expertise area which leads to a growing career path (Wilson, 2005). The learning and efficiency increases with time, thus experience bring down the time increasing the expertise level and more production.

Significance of knowledge transfer: Senior level officers and performance coaches discuss with the employees to share their knowledge and skills about performance, improvement areas,and organizational requirement (Belbin, 2011). Transferring knowledge through off the job training, such as workshops, books,are very useful to the employees for learning and development of the skills. It is very important for the organization to develop skills and understand the values. With the better understanding and improved knowledge, employees can earn efficiency in their work and organization can find out best possible performance for each responsibilities and position.

Effect of learning curve: Transferring of skills and knowledge is not only the communication; it is a process of sharing practical knowledge which will help employees to grow their skills. Effective transfer of knowledge and learning curve help the people to identify their performance level in business competencies and technical skills and being able to participate in decision making process more effectively, sets realistic career path and bring efficiency in the performance (Heathfield, 2015). This huge area of improvement in employee learning results in gaining competitive advantage.

1.3 Contribution of different learning styles and theories:

Different learning styles and theories help in providing conceptual framework of learning objectives and learning requirement. It depends on employees that which learning style will be used and which employees will prefer the most and how fast the organization wants its employees to adapt with new situations (Stewart, 2015). Therefore, before selecting a training event for the employees, it is very important to analyze learning style and theories according to organizational expectations and desires. Learning styles and theories focuses on the result which can be obtained through learning events. To plan and design such event in the organization, it has to focus on best learning theory which is accepted by its employees. Organization requires improvement in different skills, such as, leadership, Team working, and decision making etc. However, these learning styles would fulfill all these factors to generate better outcome of developing effective human resource. So it is important to relate learning theories with the individual learning needs and patterns.

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TASK 2: Training Needs & Methods for Different Levels of an Organisation

2.1 The training needs of staff at different levels of organization:

Workforce from different level requires different training programs to learn and understand values and standards (Luthans, 2004). For understanding this, Management should realize the requirements and expectations of these unequal levels. Training needs for different levels at Marks And Spencer's are as follows:

Senior Management Level

Middle Management Level

Operational Level

Senior management of Marks and Spencer's requires knowledge and competencies to deal with strategic issues. Senior management has to identify threats and new growth opportunities for business. With a time, they need to sharpen their business analysis skills and for this they can attend workshops, seminars, conferences and other off duty learning programs.

Middle management level staff requires knowledge, Skills and competencies in budgeting, planning, organizing and controlling. They bare the responsibilities of turning strategies into reality. Thereby, it is important for middle management to develop their skills and confidence to work effectively in a changing market environment. However, to enhance these skills they can participate in workshops, brain storming sessions, read books etc.

Operational level needs to implement the planning and strategies which is developed by middle management.For this lower level management requires technical knowledge, skills and competencies. On the job training and performance review can be helpful for motivating operational or lower level management.

2.2 Advantages and disadvantages of training methods used in organization:

Every organization provides different training methods to train its workforce. Some organization provides counseling to help their employees to build successful career. Different role plays at different positions enable the workforce of Marks and Spencer's workforce to acknowledge their responsibilities and job circumstances (Sun and Law, 2007). Performance appraisal helps employees to identify performance level and areas of development.

Training Method




Discussion with managers and team members, make them able to enhance their own skills and develop their career path. Positive and supporting role from authorities is important otherwise employees will face motivation problem in the organization

A positive and supporting role from authorities is important otherwise employees will face motivation problem in the organization.

Performance appraisal

Motivating, recognizing performance standards, helps employees to identify their progress in skills and competencies.

Employees who are not able to improve their performance can feel demotivated and disappointed.


Practical skills help to improve performance level and efficiency. Furthermore, it is a cost effective method.

However, its success depends on participants as how well they perceive the message.


Employees are introduced with the organizational value, expectation, job specification, challenges and opportunities

The statements made by organization may differ from the actual scenario which can create negative impact later.

Role Playing

Different role and job responsibilities are identified by practical experience.

Employees may feel nervous about different role which can result in performance degradation.

Job Mentoring

Job mentoring provides an experienced coach for employee to examine his learning experience.

A possible disadvantage is that mentor may feel that the trainee is not progressive which can lead to frustration.

Job Rotation

Job rotation reduces employee boredom, increases skills and open new opportunities to employees.

Employees may not be satisfied with new rotation which can decrease employee morale.

Case studies

It provides trainees a chance to discuss and analyze the real work place issues. This helps in developing their analytical skills and problem solving skills.

It can be difficult to search appropriate case study suitable for current scenario.

2.3 Systematic approach to plan training & development in organization:

Being a general manager in Marks & Spencer's training and development of the new employee is essential. A systematic approach, the problem solving training programs will be executed in Marks & Spencer's which can help in the decision making process. In this program, employees will be allotted a realistic problem and they will be asked to analyze and make appropriate solutions. Employees will have discussion on those cases and will make realistic solution (Luthans and et. al. 2006). These suggestions by employees will be judged by managers and best possible solutions will be selected for implementation. This training program will energize employees for participating in decision making process and increase the ability to provide more realistic solution.

Training need analysis:

It is another way of training approach, training need analysis means identification and prioritization of training needs. It starts with determination of knowledge and skills which is essential for maximum effectiveness in the organization.

The key elements of training need analysis include following points:

The training to the new employee of Marks & Spencer's will be provided through following methods:

Training method for the event:

Senior management will come forward with their findings, and then employees will participate in problem solving case. Proper time will be provided to each employee and discussions will take place among them (Chen and Huang, 2009). The problems will be scrutinized and solutions will be presented to managers. Management will judge the feasibility, edit and implement the ideas. Managers and employees will observe the change in work environment and then management can call for a meeting to judge corrections which are required.

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TASK 3: Evaluation of Training Plan

3.1 Evaluation Plan:

To evaluate the result of training program, managers can use different methods to judge effectiveness and efficiency of the event. Top management of Marks & Spencers would like to know about success of training event, and for these different factors, cost and benefits can be assessed (Youndt and Snell, 2004). Top management will evaluate the purpose of the training event success is aimed on 5 different stages:

  1. Need Assessment: it answers the questions what is actual problem? Its answer will dictate the need of training programs.
  2. Observation: This level focuses on how the training program can be made successful and improved to attain maximum benefits.
  3. Program clarification: It states the efficiency at different levels and future aspects to make it more effective.
  4. Progress: This state signifies and evaluates the progress of the participants and results of how well it can be for future growth.
  5. Program impact: Further in this stage impact of the event is measured for lifelong growth of the organization.

3.2 Evaluation of the training event:

The training can be effective by focusing employees as they identify problems from their practical experience and shared management. The trainers developed innovative and realistic solutions of problems. After the training event, staff was energized with new theories, resources and performance upgradation which resulted in better and effective performance and every sort of challenges were resolved. The training at Marks & Spencer's will be evaluated by following methods:

3.3 Success of evaluation method

The five approaches to evaluation method are very useful to illustrate the success of the program in live work environment. The system assessed the expected benefits and actual benefits to sort feasibility of the program (Chen and et. al. 2004). During the assessment, employees bring their problems which affect the development process. Thus, it is very simple to figure out cost benefits to take a decision that this program can be continued or some improvement needs to be made. The management found it a successful system which analyzed all the steps and policies by senior authorities. It helped in making more logical and analytical improvements in performance (HUMAN RESOURCES: MANAGING AND DEVELOPING YOUR MOST IMPORTANT ASSET.,2015). The training method which was focused in Marks & Spencer's is job mentoring. Job mentoring to the employees i9ncrease their skills, knowledge and capabilities according to the organization and increase the productivity and profitability of the organization. However, sometimes it also creates frustration for mentor if mentee is not progressing quickly. The another training method which Marks & Spencer's is using is on the job training method. This method is very cost effective method and employee learns the work in actual work environment of the organization.

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TASK 4: Role of Government in Training & Development

4.1 Role of Government in training, development and lifelong learning:

The UK government has a significant role in training and development of the employees in private organization. Government arranges training events by expert trainers so that employees can improve their skill and effectively perform in the organization. UK government is concerned about internal development of organizational performance. Lifelong learning is self-motivating for employees; government involvement in training can aid human resource to pursue knowledge from working environment (Vörösmarty and et. al. 2010). Moreover, the organizations are not able to invest huge amount in training Programs. In these cases the organizations are benefited by the government involvement and render support to human resource development. As a result companies are growing and gaining human resource effectiveness and standard quality. This helps to create advantageous situations for organizations in highly competitive environment.

4.2 The development of the competency movement has impacted on the public and private sectors:

Competency movement has made other organization to concern about their performance gap in the organization. Private companies are investing a huge amount in this particular sector to increase their competencies to attain competitive advantages. The employees who do not posses competitive spirit, fails to give an effective performance in the firm, which leads to poor service, low motivation, inefficient production etc. Besides this private consulting and auditing firm makes a large investment in terms of training their employees (Collins and Smith, 2006). These organizations provide a learning curve to develop their expertise. Learning is a never ending process and qualifications are provided to enhance self-confidence in them.

Growth in private organization's performance impacts the economy.Their level of performance (HUMAN RESOURCES: MANAGING AND DEVELOPING YOUR MOST IMPORTANT ASSET, 2015). Moreover, Public firms in UK are also making continuous efforts to improve the performance level and standardized service quality. Movement of competencies and skills is an essential part of learning process for effective and improved performance. Higher success rate of the never ending learning process and competencies movement in development activities and productivity are influencing all the organization to develop their own pattern in the workplace. In return from this employees are receiving a huge amount of motivation and development in their responsibility areas.

4.3 Contemporary training initiatives introduced by the UK government:

Contemporary training initiatives were taken by UK government to provide small and medium organizations a useful development and training program to bring growth and stability in the economy. This training program is vocational and aim for quick learning on different areas of a business. Thus, understanding the current scenario and future prospects, UK government designs different quality training programs for different organization (Gold and, 2013). This training facility is a fast process of development in working environment of organization. As the economy is affected by the performance of employees the government is putting extra possible efforts in designing the best learning process for the organizations as per the type of learning requirement.

Furthermore, training initiative is essential for future development and attaining competitive advantage. Some companies have developed and changed their values and to make it successful they require specific training facilities for their employees. This contemporary training will make employees to quickly adjust in the changing environment (Vörösmarty and et. al. 2010). The training is identified to fulfill the expectation of consumers, competitive positions, market conditions and future prospects. Faster adaptability is possible only with active participation and effective implementation of contemporary learning programs as per the organizational structure and employees need.

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The management brings several facilities for faster performance management of workers. These factors help the organization to stay and operate in highly competitive environment and achieve loyalty and customer satisfaction (Luthans and Youssef, 2004). The friendly atmosphere aids the workforce to feel important and search out organizational desires. For several learning requirements and development needs, the organization needs to search out more critical areas for effective implications of practices. Hence, it has been concluded from this report that development aids the individual to grow and perform better in organizational work flaw. For different requirements, there are some areas and organizational issues which will require effective interference of these learning theories and practices.




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