Sample on Physiological Principles


Human body is composed of millions of cells that are functional and structural unit of life. Numerous cells constitute to form tissues which further leads to formation of different organs and organ system (Sherwood, 2015). All the functions carried out by human body are executed through different types of cells present in the body. Cells play an important role in building blocks of body as they regulate both physiological and anatomical characteristics. Different types of cells are responsible for overall cellular metabolism in body as they perform different functions at the same time.


1.1 Anatomical features in each body system with identifying main functions

Table 1: Anatomical features of body systems

Different body systems

Organs involved


Respiratory system

The main organs involved in respiratory system are as follows:

  • Nostrils
  • Trachea
  • Bronchi
  • Lungs
  • Alveolus
  • Diaphragm
  • The primary purpose of Respiratory system is to enhance the supply of oxygen in various tissues thereby expelling out carbon dioxide from them.
  • The exchange of different gases between lungs and blood cells also takes place through Respiratory system (Nunn, 2013).

Circulatory system

Circulatory system of human body consist of:

  • Heart
  • Arteries
  • Capillaries
  • Veins
  • The most important function of Circulatory system is to supply oxygenated blood in different body parts which is basically carried out by heart (Waugh and Grant, 2014). Metabolic waste is also removed and disposed off with the help of circulatory system.
  • Nutrients transportation is also one of the critical functions of Circulatory system.

Digestive system

  • Digestive system includes various parts such as:
  • Oral cavity
  • Pharynx (Throat)
  • Oesophagus
  • Stomach
  • Small Intestine
  • Accessory Organs
  • Large Intestine (Colon)
  • Rectum and Anus
  • The most specialized function of Digestive system is to convert food particles in form of energy which is required by various body organs to function properly.
  • The secretion of various gastric juices enhances the process of digestion in an individual (Greger and Windhorst, 2013).

Endocrine system

The Endocrine system is made up of different glands that are as follows:

  • Pituitary glands
  • Adrenal glands
  • Thyroid glands
  • Parathyroid glands
  • Pancreas
  • Ovaries
  • Testicles
  • Production of various hormones, regulating metabolism, tissue development and other secondary functions are controlled by Endocrine system.
  • Basic metabolism is performed by thyroid glands which secretes different hormones.

1.2 Homeostasis, negative and positive feedback, provide an example for each

Homoeostasis can be broadly defined as 'Homeo' meaning ' same' and ' Stasis' means ' stable' as the body system which regulates external and internal environmental conditions and maintains a constant and relatively stable body temperature (Ganz and Nemeth, 2015).The homoeostatic control systems works on basic principles regulated by input and output receptors which are responsible for generating stimulus and responses. Given below are the examples of negative and positive feedbacks of homoeostasis:

Table 2: Homeostatis positive and negative feedback

Positive feedback with example

It works by increasing different body parameters from a normal range to a higher level.A positive feedback mechanism is entirely opposite to negative feedback role as the result decreases the original effect of stimulus on human body.

Example: A very good example of positive feedback mechanism can be seen in the process of blood clotting during injuries. When the tissue gets ruptured, platelets starts adhering to the injured site which releases a chemical known as thromboplastin. This chemical is helpful in blood clot formation. The release of fibrin and plastin is suppressed as soon as the clot is formed.

Negative feedback with example

Negative feedback mechanism functions by adjusting the body parameters from a deviated level to the normal point.

Example: The best example of negative feedback mechanism is maintaining accurate glucose level by insulin. As the elevation in blood sugar level is detected; the pancreatic glands releases insulin in blood that is responsible for decreasing the sugar level. As soon as average level of sugar is attained; the exocrine gland inhibits the secretion of insulin in body fluids.


2.1 Different body responses to physical activities

Response of physical activities on Musco-skeletal system:

Movement of muscles through workout and various physical activities will increase energy production in the 25 years old person by muscoskeletal systems of body. Due to liberation of energy, his inactive muscles will contract and expand in length. As a result, muscoskeletal system will have heterogeneous tissues in the forms of fibres which are diverse in their physiological, anatomical and biochemical functions (Abduljalil and, 2012). Muscle mass will gradually increase which will have a positive effect of physical activities on preventing adverse drug reactions and diseases in him.
Response of physical activities on cardiovascular system:

Cardiovascular system is responsible for distribution of blood in various parts of human body. Daily physical exertion and workout will help the person in retaining mass and fibres of both left and right ventricles which otherwise becomes inactive if the mobility of muscles is stopped. Cardiac arrest and congestive heart failure can be prevented in the case of individual through regular exercise as it helps in contraction and relaxation of blood capillaries effectively.

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Response of physical activities on Respiratory system:

Lungs will have increased ventilation power due to work out that he is likely to perform for the upcoming marathon event. This in turn responds faster to pH level and lactic acid levels. If an individual is practising inflexible exercise on daily basis, his/her exhaustion level will reach to minimum which results in decreased level of carbon dioxide and pH concentrations (VanPutte, C., Regan and Seeley, 2013). With regular exercise sessions, his/her respiratory system will work effectively without having the feeling of fatigue and restlessness.

2.2 Body responses due to physical activities at cellular and tissue level.

At cellular level: Certain changes in body takes place at cellular level due to regular exercise and workouts. Individuals with no physical exertions and one with physical activities show variant rate of metabolism taking place in body every day. Due to exercise, active cells help in breakdown of fatty acids more easily without expenditure of more ATP molecules. It further aids in secreting reduced levels of pepsin which is responsible for breaking down proteins and amino acids into simpler products (Bianconi, Piovesan and Perez-Amodio, 2013). Individuals who practise physical and sports activities on daily grounds are supposed to possess more potential to eliminate different hormonal and vitamin deficiencies.

At tissue level: Various tissue level changes in heart, lungs, brains and muscles are noticed due to regular exercising and sports activities. Exercise helps in increasing the rate of breathing which in turns leads to production of more energy in the body. Increased energy levels are required to perform various biological and metabolic tasks in body. Heart rate of pumping blood gradually increases with the contraction and expansion of skeletal muscles and tissues. More the quantity of oxygenated blood more will be the capacity of heart to carry out different activities. After an intense workout the brain induced transmitter gets active which helps in increasing focus towards a particular task and promotes growth of neural cells and tissues. Daily exercise has a positive effect on joints and bones of the body. It also proves to be helpful in loosing fat deposition and weight.

2.3 Coordination of body's internal activities

Both Nervous and Endocrine system are responsible for control and coordination of human body. The nervous system generally consists of two main divisions which are Central Nervous System (CNS) and Peripheral Nervous System (PNS). Endocrine system functions by controlling and regulating various body functions such as sleep, behavioural aspects, reproduction, growth and metabolism. Nervous system is the primary coordinating system which controls all the voluntary and involuntary activities taking place in body.

Nervous system:

Neuron is regarded as the basic and functional unit of Nervous system in human beings. It is organised of various cell bodies such as axons and dendrites which are responsible for carrying and transmitting brain signals from one junction to another (Sieck, 2013). Brain receptors send various signals through neurotransmitters which are coded through different chemicals present in nervous system. Synapse is a junction between two nerve cells, axon and dendrite which carry signals across brain.

Endocrine system:

Endocrine system is a collection of glands and hormones which plays a crucial role in controlling and coordinating different body functions effectively. It consists of ductless, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal glands with ovaries and testicles included in it. Ductless or Pituitary glands secrete hormones which is necessary for physical growth and development of body. Deficient pituitary hormones lead to development of severe deformities in an individual. Thyroid glands also contribute to growth and metabolism of body by releasing thyroid hormones (Human Endocrine System. 2015). They are mainly responsible for mental growth and development. Retarded mental growth and stunned body are the results of decreased level of thyroidism in body.


3.1 Routine measures and their uses in health and social care

In health and social care it is very crucial to record the routine measures for effective and early diagnosis of diseases of service users. Early diagnosis is useful for developing effective care plan for affected patients. In the given scenario, the businessman is 65 years old and is obese. He complains for fever and flu. Thus it is very important to record the routine measures to treat the symptoms of flue and other medical condition of the old businessman in the given case. There are certain ethical issues which need to be addressed while recording the routine measures in the given case. These issues are discussed in the following points:

Uses of routine measures:

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3.2 Assess how these routine measures provide information about the body functioning of this person.

The assessment of routine measures which are recorded in the case of old businessman is done in the following manner:

3.3 Examining information about the body functioning to inform care planning in the case

In the given scenario the care planning of the old patient can be informed by obtaining essential information from the routine measures. By measuring BMI of the businessman the person can be categorized as obese on the basis of obtained value. This indicates that the person may be at major risk of lifestyle diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, high blood pressure, etc.This information is very important for developing the care plan for the obese person that include healthy eating as well as daily exercise to control the excess weight (Choi, Ryter and Levine, 2013). This will prove beneficial in reducing the excess weight and gaining a healthy BMI value.

In addition to this, information from blood test will inform health professionals about the presence of pathogen which is responsible for flu infection and fever in the given scenario. Besides this, blood test will be helpful in detecting the blood cholesterol level in the obese person and planning a effective care plan (Greger, and Windhorst, 2013). Besides this the care workers in the given scenario will also include effective medication to treat the symptoms of flu in the given scenario.


4.1 Effect of age on body structure and functioning

In the given case the old woman was 85 years old and suffers from type 2 diabetes and hypertension. She also suffers from arthritis and her age has severely affected her physical health. In order to examine the affect of women's age on her body structures and functions following points can be discussed:

Nervous System

Age significantly affect the nervous system of older people. With advancing age there are certain changes that occur in the brain and nervous system (Nervous System. 2015). Neurons lose the ability to transmit signals from brain to other body parts which slows down the normal body functioning the body of the old women in the given scenario. In addition to this her type 2 diabetes also affects brain due to high blood glucose levels. She also faces difficulty in walking due to reduced body coordination and her arthritic condition.

Respiratory System

It has been observed that old people find it very difficult to breathe properly. With the advancing age the bones and muscles that make up the respiratory system in humans tend to deform. This happens as the rib cage tend to change shape in the older people. This affects the respiration in the old women in the given scenario as her rib cage loses the flexibility while carrying out respiration.

Integumentary System

The Integumentary system of the body if referred to the organ system that protects the human body from loss of water and damage from external environmental factors. The system include skin, hair and nails (Climstein, Schram and Hing, 2015). The effect of age is clearly visible on the Integumentary system as compared to other body mechanisms in older people. In the given scenario the old lady was 85 years of age. She has grey hair, wrinkled and loose skin and brittle nails. Due to her diabetes her skin is dull and wounds do not heal quickly.

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4.2 Impacts of the above mentioned conditions on body structure and functions

In the given case the above mentioned conditions greatly influence the old women's body functions and structures. Age has significantly affected the bodily structures of the old women as she was 85 years old. With the advancing age her respiratory system does not function properly. She finds it very difficult to breathe due to deformed ribcage as it does not contract and expand properly. This cause depleted oxygen supply to rest of the body parts (Tanner and Gore, 2013). Besides this, the nervous system does not function effectively in the case of old women. It has been observed that with advancing age neurons get damaged and thus affect the signal transmission in the body. This leads to slower functioning of the body parts as brain and nervous system do not receive signals in a timely manner. The Integumentary system of the old women is immensely affected due to her age and her diabetes. The wounds on her body do not heal quickly which leads to further infection. Her diabetes has severely affected her skin as due to increased blood glucose levels wounds tend to heal at a very slower pace.

4.3 Effects of her medical conditions including infection to the routine care

The old women in the given scenario suffers from type 2 diabetes, hypertension and arthritis. There these chronic medical conditions will include the following routine care.


In a nutshell, the present report develops a clear understanding on the principles of human physiology. The physiology include various body systems such as respiratory system, nervous system, endocrine system, Integumentary system. These bodily systems respond to humans daily activities such as eating, running, walking, etc. It has been learned that the body systems perform at cellular level to perform life activities among humans. Besides this, the report also features the significance of regular routine measures in health and social care setting in the given scenarios.

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