Social Determinant of health

Analysis Of Social Determination on Public Health with Case Study

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INTRODUCTION

In health and social care sector, the term social determinant of health are conditions related to social and economic. The distribution of both types of conditions among the population basically influence the differences in heath status of individual and groups. It is also defined as a condition of people in which they born, live, grow, age and work. In addition, the other factors like income, education level and wealth also shapes the health of people. In this regard, present research report helps in understanding he concept of social determinants of health. For this purpose one specific area Camden is considered. The report will mainly focus on the individual life style of people as one of social determinant of health in London borough of Camden. Further, it explores the requirement of health and care services in respect to inequalities in people's health. In addition, various types of health issues in cited area will also be explored like alcoholism. It will also explore the current health and social policies which are implemented in the borough of Camden.

1. Demographic profile of Camden

In respect to demographic profile of Camden, it covers near about 11 square miles in London. In the year of 1965 April, this areas was created in London. The research reports of surveys explored that in 2014, the estimated population was near about 225,000 but in 2015 it rises to 230,000 (Oladosu, Akinlo and Olanisebe, 2015). The researchers concluded hat between 2006 and 2026, near about 18 % populations will be increased. Along with this, ethnicity of Camden is more diverse The ethnicity of this areas is such as 44 % White British, 3.2 % White Irish, 19 % other White, 2.8 % Indian, 4.9 % Black Africans, 5.7 Bangladeshi and 2.9 % Chinese etc. n addition, life expectancy of both women and men is higher as compare to average rate of England. Due to improper lifestyle and other factors the life expectancy years of citizens of Camden has considerably decreased by 8.9 years in females and 11.4 years in males. One of the major reasons behind the decrease in quality of life is due to increased percentage of poverty in Camden borough of London. This is the result of poor quality of housing facilities and increased number of juvenile crimes in the area. In respect to age factor, Camden also has the young population. The crimes rate in this area is more the average for London. Due to the presence of poverty there are many other issues that have been erupted such as increased discrimination, poverty, inequalities and lack of education in Camden. The poverty is increased at high level that working families are also considered as a poverty driven In Camden. All these factors basically affects the health conditions of people. The reason it creates the differences in health status.

2. Health issues in Camden

The term health issues is referred to the damage to body in terms of both physically and mentally. With the presence of health issues relates situation, person is not able to carry out the daily life activities. In respect to Camden, people are facing more issues in respect to their health. N this context, the health issues are caused due to usage of alcohol and drugs. In this regard, the major health issues which are present in Camden are such as heart related diseases, obesity, diabetes, HIV/ AIDS and hyper tension (Halliday, Whitehead and Popay, 2015). The health conditions in Camden have also deteriorated because people are not able to maintain proper lifestyle and food habits. According to survey reports it has been estimated that more than 8% of total population of Camden is at increased risk of consuming alcohol due to depression and stress. Hence it is very necessary to adopt various strategies so that these issues are solved effectively. (Graham, 2007). In addition to this, near about 20 % are considered that they are excessively drinking the alcohol. Due to this reason, it has become the primary reason for the liver disease. In this regard, alcoholic liver disease is also a main reason which affects the health of people. The many surveys explores that between 2006 and 2011, the alcohol related admissions are estimated near about 13 % in men and 35 % in women. In addition to this it can be stated that due to increased number of people with alcohol consumption in Camden the health outcomes have been deteriorated. In such situations mortality rate have been consistently high in this borough. Various healthcare organisations have also organised training and medical camps so that they can provide training to all the individuals who are engaged in this activities. The cases of alcoholic liver disease also increases more in Camden. All these reasons also causes the other health issues which are related to high blood pressure, hypertension and mental illness etc. The researches in science field explored that due to excessive drink of alcohol several types of disease chances also increases such as stroke, cancers, gastrointestinal and neuropsychiatric etc. (Zeglin, McGuire-Kuletz and Rhodes, 2015). The researcher also explored that there is a close relationship between mental health illness and dependence on alcohol. On the other side, due to presence of money crimes, people are more moving towards to intake the drugs which are extremely dangerous for the health. The researcher conducts a survey and evaluates the percentage of few risk factors which leads the people of Camden towards the death.

Risk Factors Leading to Death

In the above diagram it can be clearly stated that more than 22% of individual in Camden are at increased risk of smoking. This report was prepared in 2015 to assess the risk factors in London. Further the 14 % of individual have been reported to suffer from high blood pressure due to various reasons. High cholesterol and obesity has also affected Camden with a considerable percentage of 10% and 8% respectively. The cases of obesity and high cholesterol has increased in 2015 because due to poverty the citizens of Camden are not able to consume healthy food. They consume food which is not nutritious and healthy and this leads to deposition of bad cholesterol in the body. Lack of physical activity is also one of the main reasons which have contributed towards increased cases of obesity. Other factors that have increased the risk of people living in Camden are alcohol consumption, external factors and various infections due to improper hygienic condition's and sanitation.

3. Social determinants of health

The term social determinants basically considered as a structural determinant which defines the surrounding situation of people in which they born, grow, age and live. Due to presence of high level of poverty factor, the lifestyle of people also get affected. In the social determinants of health five factors are present such as economic, education, social, health care and environment. The presence of these determinants makes the people more healthy but in contrast to this, people will be more affected. These determinants are based on few factors such as income, social status, education rate, physical environment, social support networks, health & care services, genders and genetics.

The health of people also get ore affected because in Camden education level is low and along with this poor access to the care and health related services. More people are unemployment and if family is working then also they will count in poverty line. In this context, the stressful situations also affects the health of person which increase the chances of blood pressure and hypertension etc. In addition to this, many people of Camden are homeless. Early life factors such as poverty, homelessness, lack of education, peer pressure and decreased support from family members and friends are also some of the factors that are considered as other determinants of health (Halliday, Whitehead and Popay, 2015). Low literacy rate has also accounted for various problems in Camden.

2013 Adjusted Graduation Rate

In order to prevent the chances of health issues, it is essentially required to increase the awareness among people about the harmful effects of alcohol and drug on health.
In the above diagram it can be clearly stated that more than 22% of individual in Camden are at increased risk of smoking. This report was prepared in 2015 to assess the risk factors in London. Further the 14 % of individual have been reported to suffer from high blood pressure due to various reasons. High cholesterol and obesity has also affected Camden with a considerable percentage of 10% and 8% respectively. The cases of obesity and high cholesterol has increased in 2015 because due to poverty the citizens of Camden are not able to consume healthy food. They consume food which is not nutritious and healthy and this leads to deposition of bad cholesterol in the body. Lack of physical activity is also one of the main reasons which have contributed towards increased cases of obesity. Other factors that have increased the risk of people living in Camden are alcohol consumption, external factors and various infections due to improper hygienic condition's and sanitation.

3. Social determinants of health

The term social determinants basically considered as a structural determinant which defines the surrounding situation of people in which they born, grow, age and live. Due to presence of high level of poverty factor, the lifestyle of people also get affected. In the social determinants of health five factors are present such as economic, education, social, health care and environment. The presence of these determinants makes the people more healthy but in contrast to this, people will be more affected. These determinants are based on few factors such as income, social status, education rate, physical environment, social support networks, health & care services, genders and genetics.

The health of people also get ore affected because in Camden education level is low and along with this poor access to the care and health related services. More people are unemployment and if family is working then also they will count in poverty line. In this context, the stressful situations also affects the health of person which increase the chances of blood pressure and hypertension etc. In addition to this, many people of Camden are homeless. Early life factors such as poverty, homelessness, lack of education, peer pressure and decreased support from family members and friends are also some of the factors that are considered as other determinants of health (Halliday, Whitehead and Popay, 2015). Low literacy rate has also accounted for various problems in Camden.

General Conditions

The term health inequalities can be described as difference in health status of people between different groups of population. In this context, the difference in mobility and mortality rate between people who belongs to different types of social classes. In this context the main motive of national and local policies is to reduce the situation of inequalities by lowering the rate of poverty in Camden. Further, the health inequalities are related to the environmental factors and biological variations in people of Camden. Most of the time the health inequalities are unavoidable. In Camden, increment in poverty and homelessness concept, health inequalities increase with the rapid speed. In addition to this due to presence of discrimination factor, health inequalities rate also get affected (Oladosu, Akinlo and Olanisebe, 2015). In Camden, the differences in health status of people are considered as unjust and unfair. In Camden due to presence of high level of poverty, people have no choice in conditions of living and working. In addition to this, many of the health inequalities in Camden across the social groups are unjust because they represent an unfair distribution of social determinants which affects the health. In addition to this, homeless people are mostly affected with the problems which are related to mental and physical. In respect to UK, Black report 1980, describes that health standards are directly linked up with the social class.

5. Policy issues related to Camden

Introduction of the section

Present section introduce the health related issues of people regarding excessive alcohol consumption which affect health of them in the Camden.

Information of policies

These polices are divided in national and local level policies which contribute effectively to reduce alcohol-related issues in the area.

National Policy

These health care policies are designed by government of United of Kingdom to improve health related issues of people in various areas.

Identify the policies

What do they intend to do?

These policies contribute effective role government of UK to reduce alcohol consumption by creating appropriate awareness people in Camden.

Local Policies

Generally, local level policies are designed by local government of Camden to reduce health related issues in people.

Identify the local policies

What do they intend to do?

Local policies of government help people to decrease overall alcohol-related issues by leaving this addiction in the area.

Discussion of national and local level policies

These national and local level policies contribute effectively to enhance knowledge of alcoholic people with help of healthy lives and healthy people promotional campaigns in the Camden. They help the government of United Kingdom to reduce alcohol consumption in this area. In addition to this, they play important role for people to leave this addictino by achieving various facilities and treatments in the Camden.

What do they take? Do they consider the wider determinants of health

Government of United Kingdom consider various determinant of health regarding alcohol-related issues in the Camden. These practices help legal authorities to develop effective health and social care policies to improve health of people. In addition to this, department of health ministry develop new rules and regulation and various health division like health protection act and health protection agency for implementation of these polices to reduce alcohol consumption in the Camden and other areas of UK (Halliday, Whitehead and Popay, 2015).
What do authors say about the existing policies? Are they effective or realistic?

Existing health care policies of United Kingdom is effective which help the people to reduce their health related issues. They contribute effective for youngsters and teenagers to reduce alcohol-related issues as comparison of previous years by giving them proper information in the Camden. Authors also suggest that government of United Kingdom can develop health care policies as per present situation which aid to reduce alcohol-related issue of people in appropriate manner. These efforts play important role for government to provide better treatment for people in Camden and other areas.

6. Public health provisions in Camden

In respect to the concept of public health provision, the Quality of care is considered as a one of the core focus of NHS (National Health Services). The main motive of NHS is to improve the quality of care and support services. In respect to Camden several types of issues are faced in respect to care services. In respect to this, the public health also plays and important role. In respect to health inequalities in Camden, the main motive of public health is to increase the awareness about harmful effects of alcohol and drugs. They also target to reduce the number of drinker by influencing the people to adopt the healthy life style (Graham, 2007). In respect to this objective, several health provisions are created by the governing bodies such as Healthy Lives, Healthy People etc. By conducting the several types of campaigns and support groups, more people are motivated to adopt the healthy things and access the health and care services. The outcomes of provisions are more measured in positive manner.

CONCLUSION

With the help of present research report it is articulated that social determinants gives impact on the health status of people. In this context, to understand this concept, Camden is selected. It is quite small borough of London with wide diversity. The population of this area is considered as a mixed type because few community areas are considered as a stable but some stills faces the high level of mobility. The health and social policies requires to deal with the social determinants of health in Camden. In Camden, the social determinants are early life, stress, unemployment, discrimination and addiction etc.

REFERENCES

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