Sociology can be determined as the study of society or social behaviour in which it includes development, networks, institutions and organization (Mitchell, 2013). In order words, it is a type of social science which make use of various methods of critical analysis and empirical investigation which is helpful to develop knowledge related with change, order and disorder. Present report is about Northern Ireland which is part of UK. This country is well known for mountains, glacial valleys, Norman castles, Christian monuments, golf courses, etc. This report covers current political, social and economic construction of Northern Irish society. Further, it covers trends in societal changes which take place in this region. Lastly, it also covers analysis of social and healthy issues in terms of their impact on health and well being of the individuals.
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1.1 Political, social and economic construction of NI
In terms of both population and area, Northern Ireland is smallest when compared with other countries in UK. In this context, it consists of 2.9% of total population of UK and 5.7% of total area. The total population recorded in the year 2016 was 1,865,450. Further, there are large number of Protestants who speak dialects of English. In NI, most commonly spoken language is English (McGarry and O'leary, 2013). Further, they also have regional language which is Ulster Scots and Irish. The national identity of Northern Ireland is complex. Most of the people from NI have British national identify. As per the data it has been found that in the year 2014, 24,394 babies where born and 14,678 people die and 8550 couples got married.
Development of statistic is widely used for making policies for the areas of education, housing and healthcare. In addition to this, the data is also used in allocating funds to NI executive. NISRA (Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency) can be determined as one of the principal sources that provides official statistics and social research for NI. Ultimate aim of this agency is to make sure that cost effective registration and high quality data are gathered.
The troubles can be determined as common name that is used for ethno-nationalist, which is a conflict among Catholics and Protestants (Keating and Loughlin, 2013). Republicans or Irish nationalist who are generally Catholics consider themselves Irish and they want Protestants who consider themselves British to leave UK and to join united Ireland. On the other hand, Protestants want to NI to remain in UK. There were many campaigns were held to resolve the conflict.
As per the history of NI there are long run issues in areas of social and political. Further, over all economy of the country is very small. This is due to low area and population. However, the growth of economy is high when compared with other parts of the UK (Crotty and Schmitt, 2014). Further, the rate of employment is raising at an increasing scale. The rate of unemployment is high. However, the condition is improving still there are about 30% of people who have potential psychological illness. Further, there are about 25% of people who are economically inactive and 16% who are employed.
1.2 Changes and trends in society
With the change in time, there are different set of changes that has raised within the trends that are being followed at Northern Ireland. In this context, below given are the changes that has occurred at different areas:
In rural areas and at different religions, premarital chastity is followed. All the people are expected to abstain from sex until they are married and that also with people who are married by religious ceremony in church. Most of the marriages are done by matchmakers and there are various experienced calculations made (Burrell,2016). For the year 1920s, marriages of post famine become infrequent. As per the data there were many single people when compared with married once. People, specially at rural areas had small plots and they do not prefer their children's to get married so as to avoid subdivision of land. However, it was in the year 1970s when the rate of marriages raised. They followed the nuclear family model. Slowly when more marriages starting taking place, then they started to live in smaller families. Further, in the year 1977 the birthrates decreased to 1/3. The culture of nuclear family was followed in both families of Protestants and Catholics. However, Catholics had much large families which compared with the families of Protestants (Hall, 2012). Presently, there are many people who have started up with the culture of living alone or couples staying together even without marriages.
There is high discrimination that take place at NI among Catholics and Protestants. In this context, Catholics were forced to go to London in search of job. With this respect, it can be stated that most of the Catholic Christians were unemployed. Further, there are laws which state that the women who get married had to resign their jobs, this was followed from 1937. However, this practise came to an end by the year 1977 in which Employment Equality Act was made.
It was in the year 1920s when inheritance customs were changed. This occurred after famine when farmers felt that they were betrayed from the land and it also stopped the birthright to families. Farmers wanted to hold down what ever they had but they had to subdivide it to their sons (Roche and Barton, 2013). As per the subdivision, the part of land farmers had was given to one son and it is not necessary that it will be given to older one. This was not possible until people do not reach the age of 70 and at this age these people are given pension. Until then, they children had to inherit land and there was no place given at home and they would emigrate and search for job.
1.4 Implication of changers over health and social care sector
Social determinants of health can be stated as the collective set of conditions in which people are grown up, born work or live. In this context, it includes financial security, housing, built environment, health system and education. As per the date it has been found that life expectancy of male is 73 years. One of the key priority for the NI executive is of reducing the gap of life expectancy among the most and least (Philo and Miller, 2014). For this purpose, there are many government policies that are developed. All the policies that are built in relation with public healthy strategy is based on the concept of social determinants of health. In this context, there are different set of issues that are considered which include drug, smoking, sexual health, obesity, suicide, etc. as per the Health and Social care, it has been found that the more focus is done over public health and social well being. As there is low rate of employment rate and due to this reason there is low living standards and poverty. This can be determined as one of the reasons due to which it causes poor health condition and health inequalities. Further, there is significant impact over the health due to recession. The employment is high and the saving are also low. This is giving raise to cost for other necessities like transport, fuel and food. The rate of domestic violence is high over women (Kliot and Waterman, 2015). Further, there are many other condition of health issues that are not recorded as at NI there is no proper press who could bring out the information. As per the rates of hospitals is low when compared with the total number of people who have health issues. There are conditions in which patients had to send back because of the elderly people at community and homes. One of the major issue that is faced by people of NI is related with the mental health problems. As per the case about 30% of population have this issue. Further, the issue of Troubles have caused many people to lose their lives and individuals who get injured.
1.5 Possible implications of social and health issues for health and social care services providers
As per the implications of social and health issues, there many changes in the practices that has been taken place within the health and social care providers. In this context, there are various treatments that are provided by the professionals (Buchanan, 2016). Further, there are situation in which people do visit to other part of the countries to make sure that they get proper treatment for their health. People visit to developing countries as the cost for cure is less. Due to the social and health issues, health care professional have to engage themselves to be ready so as to make sure that they will be able to provide people with proper services. There are various other issues that are faced by healthcare providers and these have to be considered in order to make sure that high quality services can be provided. As stated above, one of the major issue that is faced is mental issues.
In this context, there are about 30% of people who are facing this type of problem. Moreover, social issues that is being faced by most of the people is among Protestants and Catholics which is also known as The Troubles. Further, the total number of hospitals are not enough as that proper care can be provided (Budge and O'Leary, 2016). In such conditions, there are situations in which patients were told to leave the hospitals even if their treatment is not fully taken care off. Further, the health care professional are also less and this is another type of issue that are faced by people. People who want to consult a doctor need to wait longer so that they turn can come. Further, there are also cases in people do understand the problems that other face when they want to consult a doctor. In order to avoid that people take treatment as per for their own experience. This type of steps made the issues or illness more serious and do not get the proper treatments which they have desired for.
1.6 Social and health issues in terms of their impact on health and well being of individuals
There are many serious issues that are faced by individuals because of social and health issues. One of the major issue that is faced by people is related with the metal health due to the troubles. Further, the violence is also high that has also affected the psychological well being (Agnew and Muscarà, 2012). The issues related with troubles is related with behavioural and underachievement adjustment. Further, the behavioural issues are also associated with deprivation, gender and poverty. Moreover, there factors are closely related with level of experience of political violence. There are various other impact over health of individuals that they have to face. In this context, it includes lack of support from the and proper services from health care organizations. Due to conflicts, psychological condition of individual. Further, large number of people are affected by The Trouble and this has made them to negatively affect the health conditions. Issues related with divorces cases and alone parents are increasing. As per the date it has been found that average age of people getting married is between 26 to 30. Moreover, UK has the highest rates of divorce cases. In this context, people are scared to divorce and they take proper care but there are situations in which people get affected due to some sort of misunderstanding and they get separated (Crotty and Schmitt, 2014). Earlier, proof was required when any of the person files a case for divorce. However, the changes in law has made that has focused on making sure that married couples can get separated from each other and so there are high rate of single parents. As per another law that is Divorce Reform Act 1969, if couples are separated form more that two years, then they can file of a divorce. Further, the divorce are granted on the grounds of adultery and it is important for the women to prove them and only then it will be filed and approved.
1.7 How social and health issues are socially constructed
As per the issues that are face by people in relation with social and health condition, there are different set of negative impacts (Monitoring poverty and social exclusion in Northern Ireland, 2014). Due to the Trouble, the employment rate of people is very low at Northern Ireland. In this context, below given are the data for the same:
Illustration 1: Change in the number of adults in poverty in NI
(Source: Monitoring poverty and social exclusion in Northern Ireland, 2014)
From the above, given data, it can be stated that over all poverty in Northern Ireland is increasing and this is due to the issues or the conflict among Catholics and Protestants. Catholics are not preferred and they have to visit other countries in search of job.
More specifically, the rate of poverty can be divided into different age groups which will be know the rate of age groups that are affected by poverty (Monitoring poverty and social exclusion in Northern Ireland, 2014). These are due to the social implications are negatively affecting. Below given are the poverty rate as per age groups:
Illustration 2: Poverty rates for different age groups
(Source: Monitoring poverty and social exclusion in Northern Ireland, 2014)
When the member of family increases, then needs and requirements also increases. This is a type of issues that are faced by people who have children and families. As per the data the rate of poverty is raising at an increasing rate.
Another condition of issues that are faced at NI has coursed to mental issues (Suicide deaths in Northern Ireland highest on record, 2014). In this context, the rate of suicides are very high and it is still increasing. Below given are the rate of suicides on yearly basis:
Illustration 3: Suicide deaths registered at NI
(Source: Suicide deaths in Northern Ireland highest on record, 2014)
From the above, given data, it can be started that the rate of suicides are increasing and it is due to the issues that are caused at socially and other health related issues. Below given are the suicides that are done in different age groups:
Illustration 4: Suicide registered as per age group at NI
(Source: Suicide deaths in Northern Ireland highest on record,2014)
From the above data, it is clear that youngsters are highly involved in suicide and this is due to many reasons like job, increasing rate of divorce, unemployment, etc. (Suicide deaths in Northern Ireland highest on record, 2014). Another thing that can be determined is that at all the age groups, suicide is done.
From this report, it can be articulated that government alone can not perform or enforce law or any other strategies until there is no support from general public. It is important that both public and government should take combined steps so that issues or conflicts can be solved. Further, it is important for the government that they understand the condition and take appropriate solution that will be helpful to solve the issue. Moreover, it is also important to provide awareness and steps should be taken through which rate of divorce can be reduced. In addition to this, steps should be taken in order to provide employment opportunity to people.
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