System Analysis & Design

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Mainly three System development lifecycle models which followed while developing any information system are describe below:

Agile methodologies

The main purpose of agile methodology is providing alteration in existing project management. It is used in software development to help business respond and make predictability in advance. This approach reduces development costs and save time to market because with requirement gathering system develop and analysis part have be done. Its working cycle is limited to two weeks also it provide opportunity to rethink and release software throughout development process in optimize way (Powell, 2010).

Iterative/ Incremental methodologies

The main purpose of this method is build the system starting from basic partial system features and gradually adding more features until the full system is not completed (Laplante,2004).This model provides flexibility and handles the new changes or requirement comes. It provides flexibility through improving the product step by step and track defects at early stage and less time spend on documentation main of the time spend on designing part.

Iterative Model

Fig 1: Iterative Model

RAD model

This model is used for extremely short development cycle using a component based construction approach. If initially requirements are well understood then with in very short time period development team create a fully functional system. RAD is a methodology compressing the analysis, design, build phases and test phases into a series of short, iterative development cycles.

RAD Model

Fig 2: RAD Model

Model used with justification:

RAD used in the above scenario because it handles unclear user requirement, unfamiliar technology, and complex systems very efficient way. This method is reliable when all requirements are initially known. Schedule Visibility of RAD model is excellent. RAD methodologies of prototyping and throwaway are usually more appropriate when user requirements are unclear. RAD-based methodologies are well suited for projects with short time schedules because they increase speed of development (Kothari, 2004).RAD-based methodologies move many of the critical design decisions earlier in the project; consequently, this helps project managers recognize and address risk factors and improve in system. In the case all objective are clear company want to shift from traditional to automation technology but requirement are unclear company does not know how to executed automated web enabled system which capable to handle such type of problems. Company setup automated Inventory management system through company   reduces costs, manage space and contribute to the efficient and effective operation of the company. By applying this method company could save resources and time (Barley,2009).

Stages that followed in system development lifecycle

Planning phase: In the initial phase requirement will be gather. Discussion will be done on business needs. In meeting involvement of Managers, IT staff members and users. Following thing will be include in brief about system requirements, understand existing system clearly and identify the needs of new system, project scope, role & responsibility were distributed (Hardgrave,2010). Clearly mention the requirement of system includes hardware as well as software, scope of project, project budget, complete cost on infrastructure setup and schedule were consider during this phase. Planning about the new inventory system which help the company to manage  right amount of stock in the store, automatically report when products are needed in the shelf, automatically reorder stock at appropriate time, automatically produce management reports e.g. Daily sales report, stock report etc. Document generated related to Business modeling: The information flow among business functions is defined by answering questions like what information drives the business process, what information  is generated, who generates it, where does the information go, who process it  and so on (Jo,2011).

Design phase: This phase is also call modeling phase. It is a continuous iterative process. User interaction with system in this phase. User provides opportunity to understand the system and according their needs system will be modify (Kelkar, 2004). Key users, meeting in workshops, decompose business functions and define entity types associated with the system. Complete analysis will be done by creating action diagrams defining the interactions between processes and data. Prototypes of critical procedures are built and reviewed. A plan for implementing the system is prepared. Document generated related to Data modeling: The information collected from business modeling is refined into a set of data objects (entities) that are needed to support the business functions& processes. The attribute are identified and the relation between these data objects is defined clearly.

Construction phase: In this construction stage, a small team of developers are working directly with users and finalizes the design and builds the system according to user needs. The opportunity provides to user to fine-tune the requirements and review the resulting software implementation and match with standard one (Rosenblatt, 2011). Requirement of products in this phase include requirements gathering tools, prototyping tools, computer-aided software engineering tools, language development C++, Java platform are offer in visual programming packages.  If any decision regarding to the cutover to production are taken in this phase. Preparation of document in which all information related to project is mention & necessary instruction also mention. Delivery of documentation and instructions necessary to operate the new application, and routines and procedures needed to put the system into operation are providing to user. Following task related to new system are included in this phase are Programming and application development task, choose programming language, then coding part are done and after that perform unit-integration testing and after all test complete system testing will be done (Roth, 2008).Document generated related to Process modeling: The data object defined in the data modeling phase are transformed to achieve the information flow necessary to implement a business function. Processing descriptions document contain data related to adding, modifying, deleting or retrieving a data object. Document generated related to application generation use 4GL Languages or mention other tools which use in programming prospective.

Implementation phase: This phase involves implementing the new system and managing the change from the old system environment to the new one. This phase is work as bridge between new and existing software. Following tasks completed in this phase are Data-conversion, Full scale testing, System change over and end user training. Implementation team will be there for provide user training and any issue will be come then solved by software team (Yang,,2010).User acceptance is the end point of the implementation stage is checked. Document generated related to Testing& Turnover: If any new components used in system then it must be tested and all interfaces must be fully exercised.

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Organizations need to conduct feasibility analysis: The main aim of feasible analysis is to uncover the strength and weakness of an existing business, opportunity and threat present in environment, the resources required to carry business and provide the prospectus for make successful business.

Different types of feasibility study requiring for Fresco Pvt. Ltd Company are as follow:

Financial feasibility: These include the parameter contains total estimated cost of the project, Sources of finance, financing in term of capital structure, debt equity ratio, and promoter share estimating earning,  Return on investment, full detail of assets to be financed, project funding potential & repayment terms, preparing sales forecast, working capital requirement and estimated profitability (McCabe,2010). This feasibility criteria help company to prepare budget, find out cost and planning in project activity.

Technology and system feasibility:  This study helpful to determine whether the company has the technical expertise to handle completion of the project or not. It shows company capacity to handle technical problem, use innovative technology to provide the solution of problem (Kelkar, 2004).

Legal Feasibility: This study include that proposed system will fulfill legal requirements. Provide security and safety while using data. Company should follow legal norm or not.

Operational Feasibility: It measure that how well a proposed system solves the problems, helps in understanding the  development of  projects which fits in with the existing business environment or needed changes in processes (McCabe,2010).

Economic Feasibility: The purpose of the economic feasibility assessment is to determine the positive economic benefits to the organization, quantification and identification of all the benefits expected (Hardgrave, 2010). Cost benefit analysis is be done to identify occur cost and return in term of benefit.

Market analysis: in market analysis study demand, supply and relationship analysis will be done. Demand analysis identifies type of demand that exists for product or services, establish size and growth capacity (Siau, 2007).Supply analysis indentifies industry structure and helps in understand business life cycle. Relationship analysis helps to understand bargaining power of supplier & supplier, threats of new entrants and substitute.

Fact finding techniques:

Different types of fact finding techniques are available include as follow:

Written source: information collected through variety of official, historical, anthropological, or other sources (Kleinjohann, 2002). Report of any company which faces same type of stock maintains related problems and solution regarding that. Study the company report in which implement software for inventory management.

Observation: Through the knowledge of expertise person they take decision on behalf of their experience (Wasson, 2006). They are expertise in their area and special knowledge to handle such type of problems.

Questionnaire: Set of question are prepare on basis of problem occur and question were circulated through online questionnaire with help of Google docs or appoint any person to collect responses by face to face fill up question (Momoh,,2012) After the answer of corresponding question was collected, tabulate that data and analysis this data with help of statistical tools.

Interviews: Collect well planned interview of employee to understand present system, issues & challenges. Basis on problem solve the problem and implement system. Set of questions are asked which contain open ended as well as closed ended. After collecting the questionnaire responses come in form of answer .Basis on collected answer decision are taken (Barley, 2009).
In the above case written source fact finding technique is used basis on available secondary data complete the feasibility report.

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Feasibility report in context of technology and system deployment

Purpose of the report: The purpose of the report to identify factors which responsible to success or failure of any project. This report shows the technology and system deployment components. The main aim of report is to manage an efficient inventory management system which should be able to reduce costs, manage space and contribute to Implementation phase:the efficient and effective operation of the company (Gupta, 2008).The new system should help the company to have a right amount of stock in the store, automatically report when products are needed in the shelf, automatically reorder stock at appropriate time, automatically produce management reports e.g. Daily sales report, stock report etc.

Structure includes:

Infrastructure setup: ICT infrastructure setup requires computer equipment and telecommunications infrastructure (Rosenblatt, 2011). Other components which includes:

Outcomes: Efficiently manage and track inventory within each store, automatically generate POs based on reorder points and stock levels, View sales and inventory information in real-time, modifiable reports, Manage inventory and customer information across multiple stores, Create inventory movement reports, Track work orders, quotes, back orders, and layaways, Manage customer accounts receivable, Track customer visits and purchase histories, Reduce out-of-stocks and Use flexible pricing structures (McCabe,2011).


System investigation report

Background Information: Fresco Pvt. Ltd. is a company operating in retail business. Over the period of 5 years it has grown well with yearly turnover of more than £1 million. It currently employs 30 staff and has 3 different stores. Company faces problem related to manual inventory management system and wanted to shift towards automation inventory management system.

Problem statements: Presently stock is managed by a stand-alone system which has no communication with POS system. No integration of Account system with stock control system. Keeping the accurate record of stocks level is extremely time-consuming and costly (Rosenblatt, 2011).Main resources of company is spending on manual stock-counting and reporting. Producing the reports manually is a cumbersome job and company could save resources and time by automating most of these tasks.

Data collections: Mainly data collected from secondary sources and reliable websites.

Costing of Inventory management: according to consultant estimate of $2,000 – $3,000 per user for software license fees, and then at least the same amount again for implementation services (Gupta, 2008).

Recommendation: Company should implement ERP module for manage Retail inventory management (Maiden, 2005). Benefits of automation inventory management system are increase operational efficiency & productivity and streamline retail inventory, make better and effective business decision, helps retail companies to expand their business location, reach to larger audience to maximize sale and profits and helps in generating exclusive reports about sales, purchase and inventory status.

Modeling techniques:

Different type of modeling techniques used for Data modeling include E-R modeling, UML modeling, XML modeling and object oriented modeling.

Context flow diagram:

It is also called zero level DFD. In this only one process which shows by circle and entity represented by rectangular. Data store is show by open double ended line. This diagram is the highest level view of a system. In this diagram customer is an entity who give the order to purchase department. Purchase department is a process in which accept request from customer. Purchase department further send this request to supplier. Supplier is work as entity that check the level of inventory that inventory is available or not and further response given to purchase department (Roth, 2008).

Context Flow Diagram

Fig 3: Context Flow Diagram

Data flow Diagram:

It shows the flow of data from source to destination with help of graphical tools. It can be used for visualization of data processing. It exploded the context flow diagram. In the below DFD customer is work as entity which place an order then further order is passed from purchase department to supplier entity, supplier check the inventory availability if inventory is available then it reply send to purchase department (Yang, 2010).Quality of items will be check by quality inspector who verifies the product quality and if any mistake or error is occur then it send the notice to supplier. After that updates inventory level and delivery of product to customer.

Data Flow diagram

Fig 4: Data Flow Diagram

System requirement:

Technique for the representation of your data model

UML modeling technique to represent the data model: This diagram is draw with help of Rational rose software (Bailey, 2005).

Use case diagram for Inventory management system:

Main actors in use case diagram are:

  1. Purchasing department: work of this department is check inventory level of items and place purchase order for items.
  2. S/R clerk: verify shipment with purchase order.
  3. Inspector: responsibility to check quality of receives shipment.
  4. Supplier: main work is sending the order item.

use case diagram

Fig 5: Use Case Diagram

Activity Diagram:

Purchasing department checks the inventory stock list every day to check the inventory levels of all items. If inventory items level is low than purchasing department generate the purchase order by using supplier list .the purchase order is sent to the supplier and the copy is maintained in purchase order file (Rosenblatt, 2011).

Activity Diagram

Fig 6: Activity Diagram

Collaboration Diagram for inventory management system:

Collaboration diagrams shows same information but sequence diagram focus on the temporal aspect and collaboration diagram focus on communication between the objects of system.

collaboration diagram

Fig 7: Collaboration Diagram

State chart Diagram:

Vendor delivers the shipments with bill to senior clerk(s/r).The state of s/r clerk are search for purchase order, verifying purchase order with lading bill, generating shipment error notice, sending shipment to inspector and sending notice to supplier (Powell,2011).

state chart diagram

Fig 8: State Chart Diagram

Sequence diagram for Inventory management system:

Purchasing department checks the inventory level of all the items. If stock is less than the department searches the supplier list, generates the purchase order and send it to the supplier. Purchasing department also maintain the copy of purchase order.

Sequence Diagram

Fig 9: Sequence Diagram


The project report shows that how to establish automated inventory management system. Firstly report explains the feasibility of study in respect to Technical, Legal, market research and financial feasible study. RAD methodology is used for implementation the system because it provides quick delivery of product (Powell, 2011). Technical specification is provided in which complete detail related to hardware, software, network device and security all details describe. After that describe the data modeling techniques and with help of UML diagram working of inventory system management will show complete process of purchase delivery of product. With help of context free diagram and data flow diagram graphical representation of data flow is describe.


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