Telecommunication Technology

Aspects & Concepts related to Telecommunication

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Transferring of messages and connecting to people across the world is of high significance. Telecommunication involves use of highly technical devices and adoption of novel technologies. Despite the fact it has occupied a prominent position in an individual's life. Now-a-days people are not afraid of moving around new places since they are always connected to their family and friend through technical devices available (Guo and 2010). Telecommunication has not only made life simpler but has taken world to next stage of development. The report presented herewith deals with various aspects and concepts related to telecommunication. It provides a deep understanding of procedures involved and benefits associated with the process.

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Task 1: An Introduction to Telecommunications

Telecommunications concepts

The communication in modern era turns out to be simple and effortless. There was a time when transferring message at distance was a big deal. This is due to the long process and duration involved. Moreover, there was always a sense of insecurity that the message had transmitted perfectly or not. It is with emergence of telecommunication that individuals get connected easily to people at distant places (Wirz, Marin and Sanz, 2006). The technology emphasizes on establishing communication between individuals at distant places through electromagnetic waves or electrical signals. The process through which message is transmitted with assistance of telecommunications are described below with help of diagram.


Fig 1: Telecommunication Process

There are ranges of technologies involved in process of telecommunication, making it one of the largest developments across the world. The telecommunication system mainly embraces three basic units; they are transmitter, transmission medium and receiver. The work of transmitter involves taking information and then converting it into signals (Mann, Varey and Button, 2000). Transmission medium on other hand refers to physical channel that helps in transfer of messages. Finally, the receiver captures signals and converts same into valuable information. The process although seems to be longer; it takes fraction of seconds for transmission of information. Telecommunication has contributed a lot to personal development of individual and overall economic development. The entire system is established on the basis of various concepts and approaches. The concepts that are applicable in telecommunication process are described below in detail.

Communication channel: The communication channel represents mode through which message is transmitted to receiver. It can be termed as physical transmission medium that supports transfer of information between relevant parties. The communication channel can be in various forms such as wires, cables, storage devices, nodes of circuit and many others. In simple words, transmitting information from one place to another requires certain medium or pathway (Horwitz, Bravington and Silvis, 2006). This medium can be termed as communication channel since it helps in transfer of information effectively. The channels majorly take into consideration two kinds of media; namely cable and broadcast. The cable comprises of twisted-pair wire, cable and fire-optic cable; however broadcast includes microwave, satellite, radio and infrared. It can be said that without effective medium or communication transmitting messages to distant places is difficult element (Dodd, 2012).

Communication networks: In order to establish communication network is developed within specific region or environment. Network can be represented as various nodes or signals connected through channels. The messages that are transmitted in form of signals are passed through nodes presented in network system. A group of nodes equipped with various channels form a communication network (Moore, 2002). It mainly consists of three parts; namely control plane, data plane and management plane. The control plane is responsible for handling control information and providing signals for transfer of information. Data plane that is also known as user plane or bearer plane handles traffic at network places. Finally, management plane emphasizes on administration of operations and administration traffic that is essential for effective network management. Communication network forms basis for transmission of information henceforth developers should ensure its stability for long term (Valdar, 2006).

Communication services: Development of telecommunications supports various business and individual activities. It helps in assisting the business unit to communicate easily with its customers and investors. Moreover, services such as transfer of written messages in form of electronic-mail on real time basis and audio and video calls result in circular communication between parties (Czerwinski and Abramowitz, 2001). Telecommunication supports business operations in long run by developing proper communication between the parties. Different kinds of communication services help in conducting all business operations efficiently. Moreover, it has made life of an individual simpler day-by-day.

History of Telecommunication

During ancient times various smoke signals and drum were used as means of communicating messages at distant place. It is 1790 that semaphore system was developed in Europe. This method also helps in transmitting messages in the form of signals through towers that comprises of blades and paddles. Gradual with passage of time technological development move to next stage that is electrical telegraphy and in 1830 electrical telecommunications emerged in certain parts of world (Patankar, 2009). It is in England that first electrical telegraph was established by Sir Charles Wheatstone and Sir William Foothergill Cooke. In the year 1972 Claude Chappe a French engineer developed a first visual telegraphy system between Lille and Paris which was known as the Semaphore. Further Edelcrantz an Swedish engineer also established a quite different system. His system was faster and was relied only on the shutters as compared to Chappe's system which involved pulleys rotting beams of wood. But apart from all these it was also observed that semaphore as a communication system suffered from the need for skilled operators (Desmond, 2003). Along with that it also suffered from expensive towers usually at intervals of only ten to thirty kilometers. As a result, this last communication line was discarded in the year 1880.

In the year 1809 German physician, inventor and anatomist named Thomas, created the first experiment in the branch of electrical telegraphy. He developed a electrochemical telegraph. Related to it another design was developed by a Spanish scientist named Campillo. Both the designs employed multiple wires in order to show almost all Latin letters and numerals in visual manner. In this way message could be transmitted electrically up to a few kilometers. Further in the year 1894 Italian inventor Marconi constructs the first commercially effective wireless telegraphy system which was based on airborn electromagnetic waves. Televisions of the 20th century were dependent upon the cathode ray tube constructed by the Karl Braun. After the mid-century awareness of coaxial cable and microwave radio relay facilitate television networks to spread across even large nations (Parrek., 2006). Technology of crucial video was started in the latter half of the 1920's in UK and US. At that time many of the entities believed that video telephony would be greater than plain voice communications. Video technology was too positioned in analog television broadcasting long before it could become famous for videophones.

From the mid to late 20th century video telephony established corresponding with the conventional voice telephone systems. With the emergence of the powerful video codecs and high speed broadband, telecommunication becomes a practical technology for regular use. Presently because of the high popularity and huge developments of internet, it has gained lot of attention in the form of video conferencing and webcams (Resende and Pardalos, 2008). In the business world presence of telecommunication has reduced the rate of travelling for the people. Satellite was also evolved as the part of this phenomenon and first satellite to relay the communication was Project Score in the year 1958. At that it a tape recorder was used to collect and transmit voice messages. Historically the first most important application for communication satellites was in intercontinental long distance telephony. A host of other commercial telecommunication was also implemented to similar satellites in the year 1979. It was developed after a long commercial distance telephone services was established via communication satellites (Reeve, 2006). Many devices such as radio, televisions, mobile internet access related to satellites were emerged in that period. In the 1990's pricing for commercial satellite transponder modems were dropped significantly on continuous manner because earliest adoption for such devices was done. Hence this was the history behind such inventions and developments.

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Task 2: Digital communications vs. Analogue communications

Analogue communication is established by way of continuous signals or values. The signals move continuously both in terms of time and value. The technology was widely applicable in earlier times. However, with introduction of digital signs the devices with analogue system has lost its foothold. Digital signal utilize discrete values in the form of binary numbers that is 1 and 0. Each of the binary code that is 1 and 0 has assigned certain discrete variables so as to decode the messages in an efficient manner. Digital systems and networks have proved to be of high significance and taken an upfront seat in present scenario (Freeman, 2005). This is due to various advantages and benefits associated with the system that it has emerged as technology of highest development.

Digital communication system emphasizes on binary codes; henceforth all kind of data once converted to binary signals is processed by any digital device. However, in case of analogue systems different devices are required for the purpose of processing different kinds of data. In case of digital systems; one can easily upgrade old versions with newly developed ones due to its framework of processor based system. However, in case of analogue systems many a complete hardware structure is involved. The same needs to be designed in case of technological up gradations. Henceforth, digital systems tend to be highly flexible in nature whereas analogue systems are rigid and involve more complex procedures (Horwitz, Bravington and Silvis, 2006).

Multiplexing and Modulation

Multiplexing is technical process that emphasizes on combination of one or more analogue systems into common or shared platform. There are various kinds of multiplexing techniques such as space-division, frequency-division and time-division. In case of space division multiplexing various cables from different nodes is connected to common point. Audio cable is an example of space-division multiplexing. Time division multiplexing distinguishes various data nodes on the basis of time (Valdar, 2006). On other hand, Frequency-division multiplexing emphasizes on combination of several signals on common platform. The same is described with help of diagram below.

frequency division multiplexing

Fig 2: Frequency Division Multiplexing

Modulation is merging of digital binary signal or analogue audio signal to novel message that can be transmitted in physical or tangible form. There are mainly three kinds of modulation; namely amplitude modulation, frequency modulation and phase modulation. The final signal in which original signal gets merged through the process of modulation is termed as carrier signal. The diagram below describes modulation:

modulation process

Fig 3: Modulation Process

Implementation of multiplexing and modulation

Multiplexing technique is adopted in range of products and services such as radios, cell phones and so on. As an illustration, in case of radio transmission frequency for different channels are combined and placed at common platform. This in turn results in easy access to all channels by end users. Modulation on other hand combines different waveforms and signals available by way of satellites. These signals and waveforms are combined together to develop radio frequency signal (Resende and Pardalos, 2008). This in turn forms a new channel or platform for listening songs and entertainment. In similar ways various other devices are created by method of multiplexing and modulation. Both of process is based on combination of digital and analogue techniques; however they are capable of providing services and new facilities to consumers (Desmond, 2003).

Task 3: Telecommunication service providers

There are ranges of telecommunication services that are provided by business houses. These include voice and video calls, transfer of messages and most real-time chat through internet connection (Czerwinski and Abramowitz, 2001). The list of service providers with their provisions and business strategies are presented in table below.

Service Provider

Service provision

Business strategies

Vodafone group

4- G services

Providing services at reasonable prices.

British Telecom group

4- G services

Aims at providing services to all its clients. This is due to fact that it is a public sector undertaking.

Virgin telecom

4- G services

Focus on capturing large market share.

Telecommunications product sector

Telecommunication sector not only involve service provisions but also includes various products to be offered to clients. These products comprises of mobile phones, modems, tablets, I-pad, laptops and desktop computers. The devices include technology based on 3-G and 3.5-G spectrum. These devices with help of internet assist in getting connected to people across the world. The devices are manufactured on basis of technology prevailing within an economy and are upgradable to new versions (Freeman, 2005). The up gradations are possible due to their basic dependency on digital network system. The development of products on basis of digital system and binary code helps in imbibing sense of flexibility. Moreover, now-a-days technology is developing at rapid pace. It is within short span of time that devices up gradations and highly technical end get launched in market place. This in turn has resulted in highly dependence on technology on part of human beings.

In today's world people are able to not only transfer voice and written messages but are also able to get connected through video chats. Moreover, images, videos, documents and professional files get transferred within fraction of seconds. It takes no time in solving queries and getting information from faraway place (Parrek., 2006). The individuals feel at their home even at distant places due to telecommunication facilities. The change in living structure and effortless connections owes its existence to technological development in communication world.

Task 4: Range of wireless communication technologies

Wireless communication technology involves making communication without any wire or code. There are different types of wireless technology which have been evolved in the recent years. These are as follows:

WiFi: It is majorly linked with the computer networking. This technology uses a specific code to establish a wireless local area network that many be secure. It includes office network or public like a coffee shop. Frequently it is connected to the internet leading to a wireless router that helps in transmitting and receiving the information from the individual devices. Technology not only helps in connecting with the outside world but also to each other (Mann, Varey and Button, 2000). Range of wi-fi is generally wide enough for most of the offices premises and homes. While in case of large campus in order to extend the signal range extenders are used in strategic manner. Each of the new version has created faster than the last, since the technology is been evolved.

Cellular: A cellular network makes use of connected transmitters or cells which enables the user to move about while remaining in contact with the network. This type of communication does not offer complete coverage. When usage is extremely high then it may be difficult for the server to handle such kind of traffic (Patankar, 2009). Most of the time people can also face dead zones with no coverage at all. Presently worldwide use of smart phones has encouraged the wireless providers to construct more advanced and superior networks.

Bluetooth: Along with the cellular and WiFi another technology has shown its great presence named Bluetooth. It has replaced the use of cable connecting devices like pendrive etc to make the functioning simpler. It connects Ipods to stereos, wireless keyboards, mice to laptops and mobiles to the ever-present hands free earphones. The technology has its limitations as it can cover the range up to some specific areas only (Desmond, 2003). Like other advancements, Bluetooth bring up-gradation in each of their versions but it also requires up-to-date instruments at the both ends so that information can be transferred quickly. People can find it in cell phones, personal computers, laptops, tabs etc.

Hence it can be said that every technology apart from many advantages comes up with many limitations also (Horwitz, Bravington and Silvis, 2006). But on the other hand every time their new versions and volumes are available, so people can upgrade them accordingly.

Cellular radio systems

The wireless system has given rise to cellular radio system which is boom to technological world. The diagram for pager system and mobile telephone system are described below.


Fig 4: Cellular Radio Format

The traditional method of paging system tends to have one way signal whereby modern cellular radio system has two way networks. It is through merging of different waveforms that signals are transferred (Resende and Pardalos, 2008). The technology emphasizes on taking signals and coding them into reasonable messages; the same is then transferred and decoded by receiver. The cellular radio system has emerged as novel technology and assist in making life simpler. The technology need efficient personnel for implementation since it involve highly professional and technical knowledge. The system assists in transferring messages and providing entertainment facilities to clients by way of connecting nodes at server. It is through step-by-step that cellular radio system is developed. Initially paging systems were developed followed by cordless telephones, analog cellular telephones, advance mobile phone systems, channels, all Management and Digital Cellular Telephones. Technology always takes time and develops gradually; the same being case with cellular radio system (Wirz, Marin and Sanz, 2006). It has developed with passage of time and is efficiently meeting consumer's requirement in present scenario.

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The report dealt with detailed analysis of various technical complexities involved in process of telecommunication. It determines various concepts related to telecommunication and history of its emergences. Moreover, various methods such as analogue and digital systems, multiplexing and modulation process, wireless communications and all other related aspects are discussed. The evaluation suggested that emergence of digital devices and technology leads to significant development across the world. Digital network systems have resulted in development of communication devices that involves lesser complexities. The communication system has gained huge significance and makes life of individuals' simpler day-by-day.


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