Total Quality Management

Methods and Approaches in Total Quality Management

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Total quality management can be simply defined as a management method that is used to increase the quality and productivity of organisation. It is a broad approach that works horizontally across the corporation by including all the sectors, workers, extending reversed and forward to consider both supplier and customers. There are several principles of TQM such as executive management, training, customer focus, decision making, company culture, continuous improvement and employee involvement. The present report is based on the total quality management of Iceland food. The report is explaining the benchmarking. It can be considered as a useful tool that make breakthrough changes with in corporation.

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The Iceland food uses the method of benchmarking in managing the quality of their food items. Benchmarking is nothing but a method of measuring qualities of policy, products, programs and schemes used in enterprise. There are several objectives of this process that are described below:

This is not a simple tool so cannot be quickly performed. It is important to understand the guideline of firm before using the techniques of benchmarking. It is not only a matter of investigating about other companies and creating their documentation of their facilities or processes. While using this technique, the enterprise ought not limit their own scope as it needs this. This is classified into three categories that are explained below:

The Iceland food uses the internal benchmarking as this company is already established and proven its plans or schemes. The steps of the benchmarking are written below:

The advantages of bench marking are described below:

The disadvantage of benchmarking are listed below:

Total product concept

The total product concept simply refers to collection of services that is offered by product. As an example, for food item total product can be described as all the benefits achieved by the customers like maintaining good health after their product consumption. The Iceland Food is using this method to manage their total quality management. This concept is also used by consumers when they are examining the different brands of food and distinguishing their benefits and select one that provides them best value for the money paid. Due to this reasons, Iceland Food are using total product concept to make their product different from the products of their competitors and by this way they can create a unique image or position in the market place. The total product concept can be analysed by using following four levels

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Basic core

It can simply defined as aggregation of functional benefits. The basic core involves all the main profits that an organisation has promised to provide. The customers mainly demand the core needs that should satisfy them by providing them basic core features of products as the satisfaction of consumers greatly lies on the functional benefits (Evers and et. al., 2012). If the corporation is not providing the desired cores or they get failed in offering basic core then the product is going to be a failure. This results in a major dissatisfaction in the mind of people as their expectation are not meet.

Accessory ring

This involves value added benefits which cannot be directly pay but yet received. This is somewhat extra benefit that are apart from the main benefits of product as per the promises of corporation. The organisation used to make competitive advantages by manufacturing different products in comparison to their competitors. For example, enterprise is offering a water bottle along with some food product. This is seen as an extra benefit or profit that is giving to the consumer.

Psychological Ring

It is formed by the profit that is achieved as belief of users are associated with using the product or service. This involves all the feelings and notion of customer regarding the control of the product (Czinkota and Ronkainen, 2013). This differs from users to users, so it is somehow difficult to obtain it as the mind of the different consumers have to analyse in order to acquire information or their perspective.


The time can be saved or consumed when the goods or services are purchased. This can be good or bad depending on the operation. The time get consumed when buying and using of product is carried on. This keeps important to the clients whose life style is busy as they have no extra time to spend on shopping only.

Apart from this few researcher have explained this in a different aspects. They have given three layers of total concept product that are described below:

Core layers

This layer represent the minimum requirements that a consumer want from a product. From these they can compete in the market place as consumers expect them as a standard.

Expected layer

Most of the product are potently based on its unique features, their brand or the style of packaging (Chung and et. al., 2012). Although these properties are necessary for a product, they are the basic differentiators and hence vulnerable to commodification.

Augmented layer

The is the powerful difference making attributes belongs to the augmented layer. These are commonly complex form of intangible, auxiliary product benefits that are principally related to ability of company to amend products and hence consumers- with valuable services and support . But it is noticeable that those intangible benefits can really be the deciding factors as they are useful for the customers. This provides them an actual reason to buy that products.

The advantages of total product concept product are following


From the above based report it has been concluded that total quality management is proved to be very beneficial in manufacturing best quality product. It is a holistic approach whereby all the staffs of an organisation participate in improving the processing, products, services and the culture in which they are performing their work. The Iceland Food effectively manages its quality by using benchmarking as a useful tool in order to make breakthrough modification. Total concept product is a method that is taken by corporation in order to maintain total quality.


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