Biology includes the study of every living thing in the world, from the simplest single-celled organisms to the terrifically complex human brain. This branch of science concerns everything from agriculture to psychology and like other fields this is also advancing rapidly with the growth of technology. Here our biology dissertation writing experts have compiled a few most influential biological discoveries to date. These have created a significant impact on the development of biology and have enhanced the understanding about the living world. Enjoy reading!
Mapping the human genome
The map of human genome was released with 99.99 percent accuracy, in the year 2003. This project involved 10 years of contribution of hundreds of scientists and revealed intricate details showing the placement of every chromosome that contains all the genetic materials. With this information, researchers cannot only discover genetic diseases but also uncover new clues about everything related to a person be it physical attributes like body odor or tendencies towards addiction.
Somatic cell cloning
It is a technique in which the DNA of a somatic cell is transferred into an enucleated metaphase-II oocyte for the generation of a new individual. In 1996, scientists created a revolution on cloning a female domestic sheep from a differentiated adult mammary epithelial cell. The sheep matured and reproduced naturally. This discovery demonstrated that an embryo with properly expressed cells of all types could not only be cloned from a cell taken from a specific part of the body, but also from the cell of a fully developed adult.
Discovery of RNA Interference
A series of experiments published by scientists Andrew Fire and Craig Mello in 1998 revealed that gene expression is controlled by the phenomenon of RNA interference. This interference process defends DNA against viruses that try to attack it. This discovery was awarded the Nobel Prize in 2006 and led to the research on how to treat genetic diseases easily by investigating genes.
Creation of stem cells from mature skin cells
This discovery was made in 2007 by two separate group of scientists; they reprogrammed human skin cells into pluripotent stem cells without using embryos. As embryonic stem cells have been one of the most promising areas of medical research, this technique makes it possible to generate patient-specific stem cells to treat diseases. It also allows biologists to grow replacement organs for people using their own DNA cells. This, therefore, reduces the probability of organ rejection.
Ability to control robotic limbs by brain
This is one of the most jaw-dropping biological discoveries. Patients who suffered from paralysis or lost their limbs can now live a regular life like a normal human being. Earlier, robotic limbs were used just for the support, but now with this research, these could be controlled by the brain. About five people have been implanted with this chip till now, and they have been able to control their limbs naturally. While more research is being conducted to improve this device, this discovery certainly has more potential for the Biomedical field in the future.
Human immunodeficiency virus is considered as third leading cause of death in maximum low-income countries. But a recent study presents a potential way to combat this disease by making the body resistive against it. Researchers removed cholesterol from the cellular wall of this virus, that made a large hole in the virus’s membrane and turned it permeable. This experiment led to a stronger adaptive response of the immune cells. This discovery can reduce the number of resources invested in treating similarly complex diseases in future.
Recently, scientists have developed a method of transmuting existing cells into a totally new form. They transformed fully mature liver cells from laboratory mice into functional neurons. It is the first time that cells from different tissue types have shown to “leapfrog” into another type. These liver cells cross tissue-type boundaries to become fully functional neural cells.
Hope you enjoyed learning!
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